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Offline Shahin

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #70 on: January 26, 2012, 07:12:51 AM »
Thanks for the answer.

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The conclusions of the several chapters are resumed in the Epilogue, where W. also suggests that the revival of the cult of Mar Qardagh at Alqoš after the First World War should be connected with the continuing tendency in the Church of the East (and to a lesser extent among Syrian Christians generally) to bolster the identity of a small ethnic group by reference to the past glories of the Assyrian Empire (p. 285). Already in the fourteenth century Rabban Saliba of Hah, the Syrian Orthodox compiler of the calendar cited in my last paragraph (Calendar of Tur ‘Abdin), highlighted this ‘nationalistic’ association in his brief entry: ‘Mar Qardagh of the genso/gensā of Sennacherib, who was crowned on a Friday.’ The Syriac word gensā can mean family or nation; this recalls §3 of the legend, where we read (in W.’s translation, p. 20): ‘Now holy Mar Qardagh was from a great people (gensā) from the stock of the kingdom of the Assyrians (’tōrāyē). His father was descended from the renowned lineage of the house of Nimrod, and his mother from the renowned lineage of the house of Sennacherib.’

Source 
Hugoye Vol. 10, No. 1 Winter 2007
ܚܢܢ ܟܠܢ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܡܢ ܐܫܘܪ
We are all Assyrians !

Offline dok101

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #71 on: February 12, 2012, 02:19:30 PM »
Melammu Project ( http://www.aakkl.helsinki.fi/melammu/database/gen_html/a0000823.php )

5th century CE
Roman Empire   
Roman philosophers and scholars

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Text
The deity in question is very likely Nebo, worshipped as Apollo. A statue which fully answers to Macrobius’ description was found in the excavations of Hatra, where an inscription called the deity Aššur-Bel or Iššar-Bel.

Macrobius, Saturnalia 1.17.66-70:
The inhabitants of Hierapolis, who are Assyrians by race, embody all the activities and powers of the sun in the form of a single, bearded statue which they call Apollo. Its face is represented with a long pointed beard; the statue has a tall basket on its head and it is protected by a breastplate; the right hand holds upright a spear on which is a little figure of Victory; the left hand offers the likeness of a flower; and a gorgon-like cloak with a fringe of serpents hangs from the top of the shoulders and covers the back. By the side of the statue are representations of eagles in flight. Before its feet is an image of a woman, with female figures on her right and left encircled by the sinuous coils of a serpent. The downward-pointing beard represents the rays which shoot from above to the earth. The golden basket rising high above the head denotes the height of heaven, whence the essence of the sun is believed to come. By the evidence of the spear and breastplate a representation of Mars is added, and Mars (as I shall go on to explain) is to be identified with the sun. The figure of Victory bears witness to the universal sovereignty of the sun. The likeness of a flower represents the flowering of all that the god sows and engenders and fosters, nourishes and ripens. The likeness of a woman is a representation of the earth, to which the sun gives light from above; and in like manner the two female figures on each side represent matter and nature, which together serve the earth. The representation of a serpent points to the serpentine course of the sun. The eagles, by the great speed and height of their flight, indicate the great height of the sun. The statue has also a gorgonlike vesture, because Minerva, to whom we know this vesture belongs, is a power of the sun; for we have it on the testimony of Porphyrius that Minerva is the power of the sun which gives a right judgement to the minds of men, and that is why this goddess is said to have been born from the head of Jupiter, or, in other words, to have issued from the highest part of the heavens, whence the sun derives its origin.


http://mapper.acme.com/?ll=37.925086,29.125898&z=11&t=M&marker0=37.925086,29.125898,Hierapolis

Offline dok101

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #72 on: February 12, 2012, 02:22:20 PM »
Melammu Project ( http://www.aakkl.helsinki.fi/melammu/database/gen_html/a0000005.php )

Achaemenid Empire

Demotic Chronicle 30-31 (= P.Cairo 50153.2):
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[Darius] wrote the words … of the laws of Egypt and they wrote a copy in a papyrus roll in script of Assyria [sh ˀIšr = Aramaic] and of epistles [sh šˀ.t = Demotic].



Assyrian Voice Forum

Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #72 on: February 12, 2012, 02:22:20 PM »

Offline dok101

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #73 on: March 13, 2012, 06:45:33 AM »
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The History of the Life and Death of the Holy Teacher Mesrop, by Koriwn, is a quite brief biography of the spiritual leader and inventor of the Armenian alphabet. Mesrop lived from 361 to 440 A.D. Little is known of Koriwn, the biographer, or the date of the biography, but it surely was written after 440, and before 460, the year of the death of Koriwn. It is perhaps the earliest original writing in Classical Armenian. This reading is taken from Books V and VI.

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Ew aynps trtmakan hogovk' pashareal ew t'akardapateal ew ankeal i tsup's xorhrdots', et' orpisi ardek' els irats'n gtanits' : Ew ibrew awurs bazums andn i nmin degerr, yaruts'eal aynuhetew hasanr arr surb Kat'ol'ikos Hayots' metsats', oroy anunn chanach'r Sahak, zor patrastakan gtanr, nmin p'ut'oy hawaneal : Ew miangamayn yzharut'eamb gumareal handerdz al't'iwk' metsovk' arr Astuats kanxin, vasn amenayn ogwots' k'ristosaber p'rkut'eann hasaneloy. ew zayn arrnin awurs bazums : Apa elanr nots'a pargewakan yamenabarin Astutsoy zhol'ovel zashxarhahog xorhurdn eraneli miabanelots'n, ew girs nshanagroy Hayastan azgin hasanel. bazum harts' p'ordzi ew k'nnut'ean zandzins parapets'uts'eal, ew bazum ashxatut'eants' hambereal, azd arrnin apa ew zkanxagoyn xndrelin iwreants' t'agaworin Hayots', oroy anun koch'r Vrramshapuh : Yaynzham patmr nots'a ark'ayn, vasn arrn urumn asorwoy episkoposi aznuakani` Danil anun koch'ets'eloy, oroy yankarts uremn nshanagirs al'p'abetats' hayern lezui : Ew ibrew patmets'aw nots'a yark'ay vasn greloyn i Danil, yzharets'in zark'ay` p'oyt' arrnel vasn pitoyits'n aynots'ik : Ew na arrak'r zomn Vahrich anun hrovartakk' arr ayr mi erts', oroy anun Habl koch'in. or r merdzawor Danili asorwoy episkoposi

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And thus he was caught and surrounded by vile spirits and fell into torrents of thoughts about what sort of escape he might find from those affairs. And when he had spent many days there upon this, he rose up and forthwith approached the holy Catholicos of greater Armenia, whose name was known as Sahak, whom he found willing, having acceded to this concern. And thus inclined, assembled together, they rose up with powerful prayers to God for obtaining Christ-borne salvation for all the souls; and they continued to do this for many days. Then it occurred to them, granted by benevolent God, to collect the patriotic counsel of the blessed monks and to obtain letters of the alphabet for the Armenian people; having devoted themselves to a great examination of experiment and investigation, and having endured great labors, they then made an announcement of their own searching to the king of the Armenians, whose name was called Vramshapuh. Then the king told them about a certain man called Daniel by name, an Assyrian bishop of noble origin, who had elsewhere devised letters of the alphabet for the Armenian language. And when this was related to them by the king about the writing from Daniel, they prompted the king to take care according to their needs. And by decree he sent someone, Vahrich by name, to an elderly man whose name they called Habel, who was an acquaintance of the Assyrian bishop Daniel.
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Armenian Sants

(-350 AD)

Daniel, Bishop (348 A.D,)

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Bishop Daniel was elevated to the Catholical Throne after the martyrdom of Catholicos Hoosig. Although he was an Assyrian by birth, Daniel had spent many years in Armenia, first as a student of St. Gregory and later helping in the conversion of pagans. When he became Catholicos, he condemned Prince Diran for the martyrdom of his predecessor and for his desire to remove the line of Gregory from the Catholicate. Prince Diran had him strangled in 348 AD only one year after Catholicos Hoosig's martyrdom.
« Last Edit: March 13, 2012, 06:46:30 AM by dok101 »

Offline dok101

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #74 on: March 30, 2012, 12:41:04 AM »
http://opencontext.org/projects/GHF1PRJ0000000025

Project / Collection: Iraq Heritage Program Description: Overview of the Global Heritage Fund's conservation work in Iraq

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NIMRUD(Calah)

Calah (modern names: Tell Nimrud) is an ancient Assyrian city located on the eastern bank of the Tigris River, just above its confluence with the Upper Zab River. It lies approximately 30km southeast of Mosul, in the north of modern Iraq. The ancient ruins cover an area of approximately 360 ha and reputedly supported a population of over 60,000. Calah was one of four major Assyrian royal cities in the region and can be considered to be in roughly the centre of the Assyrian homeland (Roaf, 1990).

The site consists of a roughly rectangular low mound surrounded by a city wall. Rising above the general level of the city are two major tells, the much taller of which is the acropolis (Tell Nimrud), where the ancient palaces and temples of the city have been uncovered through a series of major excavations. The second major tell is Tulul el-'Azar, otherwise known as Fort Shalmaneser. Tulul el-'Azar preserves the largest palace thus far excavated, a composite military and residential structure located in the southeast corner of the site.

The site was occupied from as early as the Halaf and Ubaid periods (5th Millennium B.C.). While evidence for continuous occupation of the site is apparent in the material remains, the site is only attested as a royal city beginning in the Middle Assyrian period (1300 B.C., +/-). Assur-Nasir-Pal II, a major ruler of the 9th Century described the former city of Calah (Kalhu) as a creation of Shalmaneser I (1271-1242 B.C.), noting that the city had fallen into decay and lay prostate when he became king (Mallowan, 1966: 74). The Middle Assyrian period was one of the rare times when the north of Iraq and the interior of Syria (Assyria in the classic sense) had been unified under one rule.

Assur-Nasir-Pal II again made Calah an important royal city, when he chose the city as the administrative capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (c. 883-612 BC). Under Assur-Nasir-Pal II (883-859 BC) and Shalmaneser III (858-824 BC), his son, the Assyrians exerted direct control to the west as far as the Euphrates. In 828 BC, the crown prince Assur-Danin-Apla, started a rebellion against the Shalmaneser III and attempted to wrest control of the city from Shalmaneser III. This rebellion pitted the royal court at Calah against the rest of Assyria. Eventually, the rebellion would be defeated by one of Shalmaneser III's younger sons, Shamsi-Adad V (823-811 BC), who used Calah as his base of operations. On the death of Shamshi-Adad V, his queen Sammuramat (Semiramis) would assume the regency and rule Assyria until her son Adad-Nirari III (810-783 BC) came of age. After Adad-Nirari III, there is no evidence of a strong monarch until Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727), who extended the empire from Assyria into Palestine and Damascus.

Thereafter the Neo-Assyrian Empire continued to grow. It would assume its greatest extent in the seventh century BC under Esarhaddon (680-669 BC) and his son Assur-Bani-Pal (669- c. 627 BC), when the empire controlled everything from Lower Egypt and the Levant in the southwest to the Northern and Central Zagros of Western Iran on the eastern frontier. In between, the Assyrian kings controlled southern Turkey, the Syrian Interior and all of Iraq including Babylonia and Chaldea. In 612 BC, the Assyrian Empire finally fell to the combined efforts of the Median and Babylonian armies and the acropolis was burnt to the ground.

After the fall of the Assyrian Empire and destruction of Calah., unknown Assyrians chose to try and re-establish the city by rebuilding some of its monuments.
« Last Edit: March 30, 2012, 12:42:19 AM by dok101 »

Offline dok101

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #75 on: March 30, 2012, 12:45:36 AM »
The Legend of Mar Qardagh : Joel Walker

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Footnote

A. Salveson, “The Legacy of Babylon and Nineveh in Aramaic Sources,” in The Legacy of Mesopotamia, ed. S. Dalley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 151–52. The original excavator marveled over this remarkable continuity in cultic architecture. See W. Andrae, Das wiedererstandene Assur (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs Verlag, 1938; 2d rev. ed., Munich: Verlag C. H.Beck, 1977), 254: “Es ist fast wunderbar, zu sehen, wie genau sich die alte Gestalt dieses [Assyrian temple] offenbar gänzlich dem Erdboden gleichgemachten Kultbaues wieder erhob.” For the inscriptions to the god Assur and his consort “Sherua,” see B. Aggoula, Inscriptions et graffites araméens d’Assour (Naples: Istituto universitario orientale, 1985), 41–43 (nos. 17–20). Other finds in the Parthian level at Assur also testify to the survival of the ancient Assyrian cults. For the graffito showing a Parthian nobleman sacrificing before a statue of Nanai, “the daughter of Bel, the master of the gods,” see Aggoula, Inscriptions et graffites araméens, 37–41; Andrae, Assur, 259–60 (fig. 239).

Offline dok101

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #76 on: May 17, 2012, 09:39:33 PM »
Betrachtungen zur Siedlungs und Bevölkerungsstruktur des Unteren Khabur Gebietes in der neuassyrischen Zeit, in H. Kühne (Hrsg.), Umwelt und Subsistenz der assyrischen Stadt Dur-Katlimmu am Unteren Habur (Syrien), BATSH 8, Wiesbaden, 2008, 189-214.

by Daniele Morandi Bonacossi

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The study of the pottery collected during the surface surveys has allowed to assume even if only in a limited number of sites (36%) a substantial continuity in the settlement activity in the region during the decades that immediately followed the downfall of the Assyrian empire (end 7th-mid 6th century). The ensuing picture seems to be one of a general, widespread reduction in settlement, particularly of the rural occupation of the region, and of a possible progressive decay of the canal system. The latter would have been accompanied by a parallel drop in agricultural production, and thus by a falling back on poorer patterns of life and subsistence.

Nevertheless, this general tendency, which confirms in substance, even if not in size, the picture of depopulation and economic depression already postulated in the historical debate on the Assyrian homeland, may be countered by several significant indicators of economic vitality in the region. In other words these clues do not allow us – at least in this part of Upper Mesopotamia – to postulate any real desertification of the territory. First of all we may notice the continuity of settlement attested in nearly all the central sites of the region, even if perhaps on smaller areas than in the 7th century (in particular in the site of Sheikh Hamad). Setting this datum vis-à-vis the collapse of the regional hydraulic network and the strong fall in rural settlement we gain the following picture: a rural landscape which previously was unitary and substantially continuous, had been split up in a host of smaller agricultural areas, possibly irrigated by local canals fed by the Khabur; similarly, the region had been divided up in a series of cantonal districts gathered around the major centres.

The reconstruction of the demographic structure of the valley in the Neo-Assyrian period and the regional population patterns and trends of development between the 14th and the 7th centuries BC is the last object of the present article. The reconstruction of the areas occupied by single sites in the region has made it possible to estimate the order of size of the population existing in the lower valley of the Khabur during the Late Assyrian age as around 24,000 inhabitants.

Offline dok101

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #77 on: May 17, 2012, 09:44:14 PM »
The Provinces of Central Assyria within the Empire

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Compared to the rest of the Empire, the Central Assyrian provinces are small in size. This reflects historical developments as the provinces in this oldest part of the state had been established at a much earlier time and survived, in most cases unchanged, sometimes merged with a neighbouring province into a bigger unit (e.g. Assur and Libbi-ali; Nineveh and Halahhu*), from the Middle Assyrian period.

But while the land controlled by these provinces was much more limited than that of the new provinces created in the 9th and especially in the 8th century, it was intensely developed agricultural land without any of the empty space occupied elsewhere in the Empire by desert or mountains.

*
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Halahhu (place)
District in the northwest of the province of Nineveh

THE ASSUR-NINEVEH-ARBELA TRIANGLE : Central Assyria in the Neo-Assyrian Period (2011)

Karen Radner, University College London

Offline dok101

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #78 on: May 17, 2012, 09:46:43 PM »
George V. Yana

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What is sure, Fiey writes, is that the diocese of Ba Nuhadra [the Plain of Nineveh] had existed for a long time when the catholicos Isaac organized the Syrian Church of the East in 410, and placed this diocese among the affiliates of Arbil.

The administrative center of Ba Nuhadra, the seat of the bishop, was most probably at a place presently called Tell Khishaf, six kilometers from Alqosh, and that is where the legend places the first Episcopal seat.


See "A," on the map below:


Offline dok101

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #79 on: May 17, 2012, 09:50:49 PM »
For reference.  Maps from: Radner, K., 'Provinz: Assyrien', in M. P. Streck et al. (eds.), Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie 11/1-2, Berlin: de Gruyter, 2006, 42-68.






Offline dok101

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #80 on: May 17, 2012, 09:52:15 PM »
c. 1961


Offline dok101

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #81 on: May 17, 2012, 09:54:26 PM »
A couple of comments, from Geoffrey Khan, of Cambridge, regarding the East Sureth vernacular. Most of what is stated is not new:

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[M]y own conclusions concerning the historical background of the language spoken by the Assyrian communities today is that it is not a direct descendant of the earlier literary forms of Aramaic, such as Syriac. Rather it is a descendant of a vernacular language that was spoken in the Mesopotamian area. This vernacular is related to the literary forms of Aramaic but has also been influenced by other languages, which include, in the ancient period, the spoken ancient Assyrian [Akkadian]. In later periods it has come under increasing influence of non-Semitic languages, especially Kurdish.

Judging by the core morphology of the dialects spoken by Assyrian Christians, the earlier vernacular from which they are historically derived would be classified by most scholars as a variety of Aramaic. The issue, however, is that this was not like any variety of Aramaic that has survived in literary texts, such as Syriac.

Offline dok101

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #82 on: May 17, 2012, 09:56:11 PM »
A bit more from, "The Legend of Mar Qardagh"

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The veneration of Mar Qardagh offers an intriguing case study in the origins and evolution of an East-Syrian martyr cult. This investigation requires looking deep into the pre-Christian history of Melqi, the ancient shrine near Arbela that hosted the annual festival of Mar Qardagh. Qardagh's hagiographer introduces his hero as coming from “the stock of the kingdom of the Assyrians,” the descendant via his father of the “renowned lineage of the house of Nimrod,” and via his mother of the “renowned lineage of the house of Sennacherib.” While this royal “Assyrian” lineage has attracted the notice of several previous commentators, this chapter introduces new evidence for its significance by demonstrating that the late Sassanian buildings at Melqi stood directly over the ruins of a major Neo-Assyrian temple, the Akitu-shrine of the goddess Ishtar of Arbela.

Not a single iconographic depiction of Mar Qardagh has been published, and the history of the saint's cult after the tenth century remains sketchy. Although veneration of Mar Qardagh has continued into modern times, the location of the saint's original cult site has been lost, perhaps irretrievably. Its disappearance from the literary record coincides with the turmoil that befell the Arbela region in the generation following the Mongol conquest of Iraq in 1258.

The history of Christian settlement at Melqi after ca. 1200 is equally difficult to trace. Although scribes continued to copy the Qardagh legend into the twentieth century, no text after the hymn to the daughter of Ma nyo (twelfth or thirteenth century) mentions the saint's monastery. The disappearance of “Beth Mar Qardagh” from the literary record mirrors the general turmoil that engulfed the Christians of the Arbela region in the wake of the Mongol conquest of Iraq in 1258.

Few of the Christian villages and monasteries of Adiabene survived these troubled times...It is probable that the monastery of Mar Qardagh at Melqi was also abandoned during this period. Its location, like that of many monasteries and Christian villages in the region, was gradually forgotten.

The reading and copying of the History of Mar Qardagh ensured that veneration of Mar Qardagh endured long after the abandonment of the saint's monastery at Melqi. After ca. 1300, the East-Syrian Christian community explored in this book was reduced to a fraction of its former geographic range...The only substantial evidence for the cult of Mar Qardagh during these centuries comes from manuscripts, such as the large hagiographical collection copied at Alqosh in northern Iraq in 1707.

Offline dok101

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #83 on: May 17, 2012, 10:01:25 PM »
How to reach the Upper Tigris: The Route through the Tur Abdin.

State Archives of Assyria Bulletin 15 (2006) 273-305.

Professor Karen Radner
Professor of Ancient Near Eastern History

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In the 13th century BC, after the military triumph of the Assyrian kings Adad-nērārī I (1300-1270) and Shalmaneser I (1269-1241) over their weakened neighbor Mittani (called “Hanigalbat” by the Assyrians), the former Hurrian kingdom was swiftly integrated into the Assyrian Empire. Hence, the wide plain east of the Euphrates which is traversed by the rivers Hābūr and Balīh — the so-called Jezirah — became Assyrian, as well as the Upper Tigris region.

It was certainly the fact that the mountain range looks rather imposing from a southern perspective which has led to the still widespread opinion that the Tūr Abdīn can be taken as Mesopotamia’s northern border, not only geographically but also culturally speaking. Thus, the mountain range is often identified as the northern perimeter of the Mittani empire. However, as has been already stated, new excavations in the Upper Tigris region (especially Giricano, Ziyaret Tepe and also Üçtepe / Kurkh5) have proven the Mittani occupation of the area and confirmed the Assyrian presence in the 2nd and 1st millennium BC; it is therefore necessary to consider the Tūr Abdīn as an integral part of the Mesopotamian topography, and not as a frontier zone.

Today, the Tūr Abdīn, a limestone mountain range with an altitude between 900 and 1400 m, is best known for its numerous monasteries and churches, forming a unique enclave in a region which has been under Islamic rule for the past twelve hundred years. While the buildings remain, the 20th century saw the departure of many Christian families, and today the area is no longer predominantly Syriac, neither in language nor religion.

We will see that place names such as Midyāt, Mardin, Savur / Sawrō, Kīvakh, Azakh and Kfartūthō can be identified with Aramaic toponyms already attested in the Assyrian age. Many sites, however, have been renamed by the Turkish authorities in the 20th century and, with the exodus of the Syriac speaking population, begin to be forgotten.

The Assyrians designated the Tūr Abdīn as Kāsiēri, hence adapting a locally used toponym that is also attested in the Hittite sources as Kāsiāri / Gāsiāri and refers to an area under Hurrian (Mittani) control. It is therefore well possible that the toponym is derived from the Hurrian language.

The last Assyrian campaign to Kāsiēri is recorded for 855 in the inscriptions of Shalmaneser III (858-824): “In my fifth regnal year, I ascended to Kāsiēri and captured eleven fortified cities”. After this, the Assyrian control over the Kāsiēri region seems to be firmly established — there is no more mention of fights (or any other activities for that matter) in the Assyrian royal inscriptions.

It is important to note that beyond the area where the Syriac language and culture has helped to preserve the ancient Aramaic toponymy, going back to the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, the old place names have rarely been retained and identifications on the basis of etymology are generally quite problematic. The changing toponymy is, of course, also an indication that the population has changed again and again — in contrast to the Tūr Abdīn region which, typically for a mountain region, has served as a retreat area.

Offline dok101

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #84 on: May 17, 2012, 10:09:28 PM »
This next bit has to do with Assyria before it became Assyria (i.e. Subartu), but, I would just like to add it, to tie-in with the immediately preceding post:

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[A]s literacy dawns over the horizon of prehistory the first ethnic group whom we know to have inhabited the region [Arbil and its environs] are the Hurrians. This is not to say there were not other groups. There almost certainly were. Texts over these millennia relating to the eastern frontiers of Mesopotamia (for instance Ur III administrative documents and the Shemshara archives) contain a large number of personal names whose linguistic affiliation has not yet been established and it is, in my view, probable that parent languages will one be day be recognised and reconstructed for at least some of them. Be that as it may, the Hurrians are the earliest definable group for whose presence in the region we currently have evidence; followed closely by the Sumerians.

Tell Nader Project/Tell Baqrta Project
Dr. Konstantinos Kopanias

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #85 on: May 18, 2012, 12:00:00 AM »
A New Attempt at Reconstructing Proto-Aramaic

Part II (2011)

Sergey Loesov

Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow

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The etymology of the -ē suffix

How does this evidence square with our ideas about the origin of the -ē suffix? There is no consensus about its etymology, except that it was not the masculine-plural-definite nominal ending in Proto-Aramaic (save perhaps for the nisba nouns). Three theories have been enjoying support since the late 19th century: 1) *-ayyāʔ > -ē; 2) generalization of the -ē that since prehistoric times had been used to the right of the nisba āy- in the whole of Aramaic; 3) borrowing of the Assyrian [Akkadian] masculine plural ending -ē.

Theory (1), being the weakest claim, is the most appealing one, but it has no phonological justification. A shift ayyā > -ē is attested nowhere in historical Aramaic, and the last-syllable stress makes it improbable in prehistoric times as well (Rosenthal 1936:76 fn.6, pace Nöldeke 1904 and Cantineau 1931).

Theory (2) is based on the assumption that kaŝdāyē < *kaŝdāyayyā should be “a natural Aramaic development, a simplification of the overly cumbersome *-ayayyâ” (Kaufman 1974:128 fn. 58). Thus this theory presupposes two unexplained (and to my mind improbable) developments: the ad hoc contraction -ayyā > -ē in this particular surrounding and the subsequent generalization of -ē to combine with all the relevant nominal bases.

Theory (3), shared by the present writer, is a strong claim, therefore it requires typological and historical justifications. The borrowing hypothesis will look more plausible if we relate it to the fact that the morpheme in question (i.e., the postpositive article of Proto-Aramaic) was going to forfeit its pristine discourse function in the whole of Middle Eastern Aramaic. It is natural to ask whether this shared loss had its beginnings in the immediate common ancestor of the Eastern Aramaic languages.

Aramaic (both Old and Middle) has two productive derivational morphemes almost certainly borrowed from Akkadian: the nominal abstract suffix -ū(t) and the causative verbal prefix š-/s-. The -ū(t) suffix is highly expansive, to the degree of becoming “parasitisch” (Barth 1894:415), while š-/s- is hardly attested with more than a dozen Aramaic roots (cf. Loesov 2009:490 f., a review of data gleaned from reference tools). Given this evidence and the above typological considerations, the borrowing of the plural nominal ending -ē from Akkadian into Proto-Eastern-Aramaic does not look as improbable as it would seem on first sight.

Offline Shahin

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #86 on: June 02, 2012, 04:50:49 AM »
Asuryoyo your inbox is full so I answer you here:

Shlomo ahuno, tawo no, tawdi,  w hat aydarbo hat ?
harke kibokh qorat i Doctrine d'Mor Addai bu Suryoyo bHerfat Estrangeloye w bleshono Englishoyo sti : http://ia700300.us.archive.org/16/items/doctrineofaddaia00phil/doctrineofaddaia00phil.pdf

Shlome
ܚܢܢ ܟܠܢ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܡܢ ܐܫܘܪ
We are all Assyrians !

Offline asuryoyo

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #87 on: August 01, 2012, 03:47:15 PM »
Asuryoyo your inbox is full so I answer you here:

Shlomo ahuno, tawo no, tawdi,  w hat aydarbo hat ?
harke kibokh qorat i Doctrine d'Mor Addai bu Suryoyo bHerfat Estrangeloye w bleshono Englishoyo sti : http://ia700300.us.archive.org/16/items/doctrineofaddaia00phil/doctrineofaddaia00phil.pdf

Tawdi sagi aho tobo no! Tawdi ste d'mshadarlokh o namqå.

Shlome

Shlome

Offline truehistory

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #88 on: October 08, 2012, 01:50:55 AM »
Soon to be published a book by William M. Warda titled Assyrians Beyond the Fall of Nineveh. It provides historical and archaeological evidences that prove the survival of the Assyrians after the fall of Nineveh, and their conversion to Christianity. The evidence include quotes by the early  centuries of Christianity Assyrian writers,  such as Mar Ephraim the great, Mar Nasai, Timothy (780 to 823) the patriarch of the Church of the East, Mar Michael, patriarch of the Syrian Orthodox Church and others. Evidence also include the surviving elements of the ancient Assyrian culture into Christianity.  :loool:

Offline ASHOOR

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #89 on: November 23, 2012, 08:36:17 PM »
"The Assyrian Christians, or Nestorians, of Northern Meso potamia and Kurdistan have a special interest for many ..."

Source: The Spectator - Volume 3 - Page 412 , Year 1792


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Offline ASHOOR

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #90 on: November 23, 2012, 09:27:11 PM »
"Allow me to observe that the term Syrian as here applied is in no way related to modern Syria. At one time it seems to have been synonymous with Assyrian, later it was restricted to tho people who spoke the Syriac language. Subsequently, probably after the Mohammedan invasion, it was used to designate the two Christian communities in Mesopotamia and some of the districts formerly comprised in ancient Assyria who continued to use the Syriac either colloquially or in their rituals.  These communities styled themselves Syrians but by tho so-called orthodox were branded as Jacobites and Nestorians. 

Finally, the Church of Rome, having succeeded in inducing many of both rites to conform to the Papal supremacy, another change supervened the dissidents from tho Jacobites were called Syrian Catholics and those from the Nestorians Chaldeans which nomenclature prevails at the present day and is recognized by the Ottoman authorities. Nevertheless, the older communities still persist in calling themselves Sooraye that is Syrians and those of them who inhabit the Jebel Tor and tho mountains of tho Kurdistan continue to speak Soorith a dialect of the ancient Syriac"



The Chromolithograph: a journal of art, decoration, and the ... - Page 122
Year: 1867
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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #91 on: August 12, 2013, 04:27:58 PM »
This is amazing: a page that lists the many different terms referred to 'Assyria' and 'Assyrians' following the fall of the empire.

http://www.jaas.org/edocs/v18n2/Parpola-identity-terms.pdf

This is very invaluable for anyone doing similar research, on Assyrians post the fall of their empire in 612.

For example, around the year 90 BC, the term Assyria started to change to Syria, popularized by Greek writers. And the rest is history with the whole 'Assyria vs. Syria' name confusion.



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Offline ASHOOR

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #92 on: August 12, 2013, 04:32:15 PM »
Christianity in Iran

"The first missionaries under the American Board of Commissioners (Presbyterian and Congregational Churches) went to Iran in 1832. Originally, they worked among the Assyrians in Rezayieh hoping to promote a spiritual awakening among these nominal Christians."

http://www.farsinet.com/persiansinbible/pib10/chapter14.pdf


Ashoor
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Offline ASHOOR

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #93 on: August 14, 2013, 09:14:27 AM »
Book: Origines: Babylonian empire. Assyrian empire. Empire of Iran. 1824
 By Sir William Drummond, Thomas James Matthias


"Herodotus L 7 tells us that the Assyrians were called Syrians by the Greeks and Assyrians by the Barbarians Thus the Greeks not only gave the appellation of Syria to the whole country which extends from Phoenice to Babylon..."[/i]

htp://books.google.ca/books?id=wDWGAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA150&img=1&zoom=3&hl=en&sig=ACfU3U1yJ32-ogwQ5D4JZL9w1-9nNy2nvg&ci=193%2C431%2C777%2C294&edge=0



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Offline ASHOOR

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #94 on: August 14, 2013, 09:16:55 AM »
Book: Origines: Babylonian empire. Assyrian empire. Empire of Iran. 1824
By Sir William Drummond, Thomas James Matthias


"It was apparently from their ignorance of both that the Greeks at first gave the name of Syria alike to Aram and to Ashur and that they afterwards made no distinction between Syrians and Assyrians Thus "
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Offline Rumtaya

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #95 on: August 14, 2013, 12:44:00 PM »
Yeah the good old greeks. Its due to that we got this "aramean" problem within our Assyrian Nation. Its always fun to see how some self hating Assyrians say that they are arameans and whenever they want to provide facts they come up with "XY said that those who the Greeks call Syrians, call themselves Arameans". Well thats not a suprise, because those couple of Greeks who made this statement where at those places where the real arameans were from (west of the eurphrates).

And whenever you have someone like Herodotus saying that those he called Syrians, were called by the Barbarians "Assyrians", its nothing then it was real assyrians who lived east of the euphrates i.e. Assyria. The only thing that kind of "brought" the Assyrians and Arameans together was the very similiar language. Which however should be noticed that the Aramaic of the Assyrian Empire was surly somethingelse then what the original Arameans spoke in their homelands west of the euphrates.


Probably it would be something like the situation of the British Island. If I would go across England, Wales and Scotlannd...one would say ahh they all talk somehow English i.e. they are English men.
« Last Edit: August 14, 2013, 12:47:28 PM by Rumtaya »

Offline ASHOOR

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #96 on: August 15, 2013, 12:55:32 PM »
I posted about this in our 'Assyrian Books' thread already:


Assyrians post-Nineveh: identity, fragmentation, conflict and survival (672 BC - 1920): A study of Assyrogenous communities [Paperback]
Dr Racho Donef (Author)



Book Description
Publication Date: December 16, 2012

This study examines the distant past to see the connection between Imperial Assyria and the Assyrians in the nineteenth century and the hypothesis that the Assyrians identity is purely a western construct of the nineteenth century. There have been a number of studies, which discuss the Assyrians, continuity of their culture from Ancient times, and identity. However, this study examines a number of sources, which by and large, have not been utilised. Many travellers, missionaries, and explorers, travelled to the East between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries and wrote about the peoples they visited. Furthermore, there are Vatican sources, which up to now have not been used in the study of the religious schisms among the Assyrian communities. These primary accounts in French, Latin, Spanish and English and certain Greek sources shed light to the problematic. Sources in Turkish, often as translated documents from Arabic and Syriac, clarified the extant information.




link: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0987423908/ref=as_li_ss_tl?ie=UTF8&tag=assyrianvoi04-20&linkCode=as2&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0987423908



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Offline ASHOOR

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #97 on: August 16, 2013, 12:02:51 PM »
Commentary upon the first[-fifth] book of Moses ...  By Simon Patrick - written in 1695

"Ashur From whom came the People called at first Assyres and afterward Assyrians. Which was a Name as large as their Empire comprehending even Syria itself which in several authors is the some with Assyria. But in proper speaking it was only that Country whose head was Niniveh called sometimes Adiabene and Aturia or Assyria"


-This clearly shows that Assyria, after the fall of the empire, came to be called many different names, including Adiabene.

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Offline ASHOOR

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #98 on: August 17, 2013, 07:02:57 PM »
Let us not forget in the New Testament, in the book of 'Acts': 2:9


Quote
And how is it that we each hear them in our own language to which we were born? 9"Parthians and Medes and Elamites, and residents of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia, (10)Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the districts of Libya around Cyrene, and visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes...[/i]


Those that are referred to as being residents of Mesopotamia' would have included Assyrians, since Assyrians are one of the original people to accept Christianity.

ASHOOR

« Last Edit: August 17, 2013, 07:15:33 PM by ASHOOR »
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Offline ASHOOR

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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #99 on: August 19, 2013, 09:53:10 PM »
The Nestorians; or, The lost tribes
By Asahel Grant : 1841




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Re: Assyria after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #100 on: August 19, 2013, 10:46:24 PM »
Six Months in a Syrian Monastery: Being the Record of a Visit to the Head ...
 By Oswald Hutton Parry
- 1895

He refers to an Assyrian king in the time of Christianity, named Sanharib.

Also notice the use of 'Papa Syrians' which is obviously another reference to Assyrians who joined the Catholic church (chaldeans)

ASHOOR
« Last Edit: August 20, 2013, 08:45:46 AM by ASHOOR »
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Re: Assyrian continuity after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #101 on: August 20, 2013, 09:42:57 AM »
Indian Church history
By Thomas Yeates , 1818


Notice how Assyria is still referred to as 'Athur' at the apostolic times, which is some 500 years or more after the fall of the empire.



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Re: Assyrian continuity after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #102 on: August 20, 2013, 12:57:31 PM »
The History of Rome - Volume 2 - Page 148
Published in 1835



Read this reference to 'Roman Province of Assyria' - this is the chapter about the emperor Trajan and his expeditions around the year 90-100 AD.

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Re: Assyrian continuity after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #103 on: August 21, 2013, 10:51:00 PM »
Byzantium and the Arabs in the Sixth Century ..., Volume 1, Part 2
By Irfan Shahîd


Talking about Assyrians in the 5th century, during the rule of the Roman/Byzantine empires.

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Re: Assyrian continuity after the fall of the empire:612 BC-1900 AD
« Reply #104 on: August 21, 2013, 10:58:46 PM »
Change in Byzantine Culture in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries
 By Aleksandr Petrovich Kazhdan, Annabel Jane Wharton
Published in 1985

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