Archive for the ‘History’ Category.

If ISIS Are Not An Islamic Group President Obama Than Who Are They?

 

 

 

 

 

 

obama turkish flag

By Abbey Mikha

There is a video circulating on YouTube of president Obama’s previous speech from 2015 where he made the following comments: “Radical groups exploit grievances for their own game. One of those groups is ISIL which calls itself the Islamic State.” He continues, “Let’s make two things clear ISIL is not Islamic, no religion condones the killing of innocents and the vast majority of ISIL’s victims have been Muslims.”

My question to you president Obama is if ISIS is not Islamic than who are they and why are they using Islam? Why are they aggressively fighting and dying in the name of Islam? Wouldn’t it be more appropriate to say that ISIS is a new small but steadily growing extremist Islamic group like Al Qaida which is exhausting Islam to gain power, land, and a new terrifying Islamic culture? If ISIS is not Islamic than all the Muslim countries in the world should unite, stand up and fight for the honour of Islam against ISIS! Saudi Arabia should fight ISIS! Qatar should fight ISIS! Turkey should fight ISIS! The billions of Muslims should make their voices heard against ISIS! The brutality of ISIS should not be condoned by anyone as they are seeking to build their state inch by inch, day by day, at the cost of blood and souls of innocent men, women, and children from all around the world. Does the Islamic world want to be responsible for allowing the creation of a terror state in the Middle East which its sole purpose for existing is to attack true Muslims, Assyrian Christians, Yezidis, other minorities in the Middle East and create terror attacks in the Middle East, Europe, and North America? What kind of quality of life will the people of this world have if the Islamic State is successful and they take away all our freedoms?

President Obama isn’t it true that in her book your previous secretary of state Hillary Clinton acknowledged that America created and funded Al Qaeda as a terrorist organization in the prime of the Soviet-Afghan war? Mrs. Clinton was fine with all of this but when the revolution came about in Egypt and the Islamic brotherhood government and president were kicked out by thirty-eight million Egyptian demonstrators it changed the American plan.

The United States with its technology can see what is going on in Mars and other planets and beyond! The secret intelligent agency of United States is so powerful that we should ask them to tell us what they know and what they see. Tell us what are the plans of Islamic countries like Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar and the international Islamic brotherhood group in regards to ISIS?  Mr. President how is ISIS functioning? Who is buying their oil? Who is buying them thousands and thousands of trucks and weapons to use in the fight against the world? How are the millions of dollars from oil sale being transferred and through which banks?  Wondering which borders the oil barrels go through? Mainly what has been named “The moderate Islamic government of Turkey!” And also one of the big questions is what is the role of the government of Barazani in Northern Iraq in regards to ISIS? Is the dictator Barazani and his family and gang taking advantage of the fragile situation in Iraq and going ahead planning with the Turkish government lead by president Erdogan to sell the terrorist oil together and making millions of dollars? Yes that is definitely what is going on!

We want to believe you president Obama, but the American people and the world have a right to know the truth and you need to provide proof and answers in regards to ISIS truly not being Islamic! You cannot just say the majority of people they attack are Muslims because they have been annihilating Assyrian Christians and other minorities in Iraq and Syria. They are killing our people, stealing our land, and destroying our collective dream of a future Assyrian region in Iraq. Of course Mr. President you would never mention the Assyrian martyrs which have been murdered, raped, starved, and kidnapped by ISIS in Syria and Iraq. These are Assyrians and they are Christians! Were Al Qaida not Islamic Mr. President? What is the difference between ISIS and Al Qaida? We remember your friend Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski in the time of Al Qaida fighting the Soviets praising Muslims calling them, “The Revolutionary Islamic Mojahideen.” Mr. President is this not another game like when the British sent Lawrence of Arabia to create Wahhabis for the Saudi family in World War I? Is this the extent the United States has gone to make sure its own interests are secured? Please Mr. President, the American people are searching and they will find everything they are searching for.  Mr. President the truth will set you free. Merry Christmas and a happy New Year Mr. President from the children of Assyria living in refugee camps in the North of Iraq who the world are ignoring and you consider too insignificant as a minority to even care about.

President Obama stating that ISIL is not Islamic Video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=91620ymBEQI&feature=player_embedded

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Remembering Assyrian Martyrs Past and Present

red candle

 

By Abbey Mikha

Every day I think about the Assyrian Martyrs who were massacred in 1915 in Hakkari, Tur Abdin, and other Assyrian areas and also in Simele in 1933. I am especially thinking about these Genocides today August 7th because today is Assyrian Martyrs day.

The Seypa Genocide is a part of my identity. I am a descendant of Assyrian human beings who escaped this Genocide from Zerineh Jilu Hakkari and Mardin Tur Abdin.   This Genocide which was perpetuated against Assyrians, Armenians, and Pontic Greeks at the hands of the Turks and their cousins the Kurds, devastated our nation perhaps forever…

I really feel that today in 2015 history is repeating itself and the Assyrians are suffering again and again as they did one hundred years ago. I ask God and the universe to protect my little nation and not let us be wiped out by cruel nations who do not have any humanity and only know the love of money, power, weaponry, and backwards religious mentality.

God be with the Assyrians who are still being held hostage in Syria today and all others who have fled and are seeking  life in other countries.  God help our people and may all individuals of other cultures sympathize with the Assyrians who are literally being silently wiped out today.

I pray for each and every Assyrian. I pray for your little children, for your girls and boys. I pray for your teenagers and those who are become young adults in this difficult time. I pray for Assyrian people of all ages and especially the courageous elderly.  I pray for this nation that the human race has forgotten and ignored.

May the Spirit of the Assyrian Nation shine brightly amongst nations in these difficult days! May the love in the hearts of Assyrian children and people surround each Assyrian individual in the homeland and protect them. May this love build bridges amongst our Assyrian people and bring us closer together as one ancient Assyrian united nation.

Lastly, may the truth become evident that the Assyrian nation was always in the heart of Jesus the Christ and any nation in the heart of Jesus deserves to survive, thrive, and bloom unto eternity.

I light this candle in the name of every Assyrian, past, present, and future.  God bless you all!

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Digitizing Iraq’s books and documents is the only way to avoid the loss of history

By: Ashur Sada

Over the weekend, I came across an article about ISIS (aka ISL) taking over the Library of Mosul where

Digitizing books in Iraq would give them a safe future

Digitizing books in Iraq would give them a safe future

they confiscated close to 2000 books-leaving behind only Islamic books-and taking them away. What happened next is very disturbing but not shocking at all: ISIS set the books on fire, destroying them all in the process.

Sounds familiar? yes it does, it is similar to what the Mongols did in Baghdad in 1258 when they threw thousands of historical books, documents and records-many of which were Assyrian by authorship and origin-into the river, purportedly turning the river black from all the spilled ink.

But it is not just the Mongols and ISIS. Iraq has always been an interesting place: lots of history but at the same time rarely ever stable enough to sustain this rich history. From ancient times and until now, it has never been stable enough for more than a few years or decades at a time and that has meant that its historical treasures-especially books and artifacts-have always been the subject of looting, burning and total destruction. Iraq may have an vast collection of historical and ancient books and artifact today but it should have been double this had it not been for all the wars and destruction that this land has seen over the ages.

While artifacts and other physical objects can’t be easily digitized, other than simply taking pictures of them, books can have a better fate and be protected from destruction. Thanks to the internet and other new technologies that didn’t exist even a few decades ago, Iraq can and should start to digitize as many of its ancient books and archive records as possible. Google Books for example is already the largest digital depositary of books in the world. Using new scanning technology that Google pioneered, you can now find English-other languages are slowly being added too-books that go as far back as 500 years ago, which is shortly after the printing press was invented. This ensures that these priceless documents and books are preserved virtually forever, eliminating the possibility of a future destruction through fire or intentional sabotage which unfortunately is an inevitable possibility in a place like Iraq and the Middle East in general.

Imagine for a second if Google Books or other similar technologies existed some 1000 years ago. It would completely change our world today. It would mean that the books were preserved already, even if the Moguls tried to destroy them when they invaded Baghdad. From a historical point of view, this would be a complete paradigm shift from what we have today. It would mean having access to material that we can’t even dream of today. For example, from an Assyrian prospective, it would shed new light on what happened to Assyrians after the fall of their empire and how they evolved to become Christians and continue their legacy. While we do have some information on what happened to Assyrians after the fall of their empire, a lot has been lost in the centuries following the fall of their empire. The ruthless moguls ensured that most of what was left, would be lost forever in the Tigris river in Baghdad.  From a Christian prospective, we would likely have a lot more literature and volume on how Christianity came to Iraq and neighboring regions etc.

Google, in fact, has already taken steps to digitize physical objects from the past.  Using Google Maps technology, they have already digitized the ‘National Museum of Iraq‘ , allowing you to take a virtual tour inside. Not a substitute for the real thing of course, but at least we have a copy in case the real thing is lost as a result of fire, looting or direct sabotage by terrorists, looters etc.

Digitization, of course, has its limitation. For one, it may preserve the text of the book and even the way its cover and its pages look, but it is not a substitute for the real book and the way it feels when you touch it. But at the end of the day, it is better to at least preserve the content of these books than not to have anything left at all. In other words, when we can’t preserve both the substance and the form, let us at least save the former. After all, the ideas we inherit from these books are what matters the most. The preservation of the book itself, the cover, the pages, while of paramount importance, comes only second to preserving the actual idea, facts and information that these books and records try to convey to their readers.

 

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Is History Repeating Itself?

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By Abbey Mikha

            World War I as thought of as an Islamic jihad and or a Christian crusade is in essence very similar, but it involved diverse nations of differing historical background and from opposing regions of the world. Although the terms jihad or crusade had a religious connotation, the actual dealings, which occurred, by the Ottomans and the British were based on interests, benefits, strategy, and not necessarily religion. These religious ideas were used to rationalize war against a perceived enemy. The ordinary individual on both sides and his religious passions were sparked by these religious philosophies, which were used by their leaders to start conflict and continue it for the benefit of the heads of these empires. It is not the ordinary individual who benefited from war rather the planers and thinkers who use ordinary people to condition them to do their dirty work. History is repeating itself as ISIS is doing this today in Mosul, Iraq and other regions against the Assyrian Christians, the Indigenous people of Nineveh. It must be stated that ISIS itself is a tool in the hands of the same schemers who since 2003 until today have been terrorizing, displacing, and killing Assyrian Christians and other minorities. One must ask the question of who is benefiting from these criminal acts and then we will know who is responsible.

During World War I crusade meant a religious war and jihad meant effort or struggle. A call to jihad was made in Constantinople and another in Madina by Arabs. The leaders told the regular people that death or sacrifice for the cause would send them to paradise. In 1914 there were 270 million Muslims. 30 million governed by fellow Muslims. 100 million were British subjects. There were others in Chechnya. Those who opposed holy war were promised the fire of hell. This was to scare the ordinary religious individual. Call to jihad was translated into Persian, Urdu, Arabic, and Tartar. Jihad was also proclaimed in Afghanistan and India. In Persia there was a call for jihad by Shiites. Uganda, Congo, Sudan were also involved.   This was the most prominent instant of state sponsored jihad, for the Ottomans knew that their empire was going to be destroyed unless they made their move. Jihad was seen as a German plan to weaken Britain and her allies at the time.

Enver Pasha the Ottoman Minister of War himself wondered, “Is holy war useful?” In other words how could the Ottomans use the notion of holy war! Jihad was an attempt by the Ottomans to supposedly unite the empire. One must note that history seems to be repeating itself here again because today the Prime Minister of Turkey Tayyip Ordogan and his Turkish Foreign Minister Daoud Oglo are the main players in the fighting of a dirty war in Syria and Iraq in order to selfishly retrieve gas and oil by manipulating many Islamic jihadi groups in the region.

In regards to World War I in the Middle East and the Ottomans using the notion of holy war to unite the empire, one has to consider that there were many non-Turkish nations living under Ottoman tyranny who were also Christians such as the Assyrians, Armenians, and Greeks. If Jihad was going to strengthen the Ottoman Empire what was to become of its Christian inhabitants?

The British Empire had more Muslims living in it than the Ottoman Empire, but there was a religious crusade declared in Europe. The regular soldiers were told that the British army wanted to reclaim the Holy Land for Christendom and perhaps make Jerusalem the capital of the world. Throughout the 19th century the idea of crusade was associated with an act of public good, like crusading for a cause…

The idea of crusade was not just restricted to the Middle East. Anglicans demonized Germany as anti-Christian and perhaps even pagan. This was their propaganda. Though Germany was a European country the British wanted to defeat the Germans because these peoples were of a different culture. The British tried to distance themselves from fighting a Muslim Empire but they did want to reclaim Constantinople supposedly for Christianity.

In March 1917 the British took Baghdad but the British proclaimed themselves as liberators rather than colonizers. Also, when Allenby entered Jerusalem he did so on foot rather than as a conqueror on a horse. For soldiers of the Middle East who relied on the Bible crusading was about Ottoman government not Islam. They wanted to free people from Ottoman rule not Islamic rule. Soldiers many times saw themselves as tourists. They were fascinated by Islamic culture and found this to be a once in a lifetime opportunity.  A chance to see Egypt, tour the Christian Holy sights and Islamic architecture.   Most of the British soldiers were Protestants though and they did not feel a complete connection with the Christianity in the Holy Land. It was not what they expected. Perhaps here again history is repeating itself as the same sentiment can be seen in the reasoning for many if not most European, Canadian, American, and the larger English speaking community of the world today who do not feel a closeness and a need to stand up for the crimes against humanity which are being committed against the Assyrian Christians (also called Chaldeans and Syriacs) in our holdy land. We ask you on behalf of all the Assyrians suffering in the world. Open your eyes and hearts and help this ancient community, which is on the brink of extinction.

Conclusion

Religion is supposed to be about spirituality. Religion is about faith and it is for the individual not for nations to ruin the world through their understanding of religion. Faith is between you and God no one else. It was the leaders of the Ottoman and the British Empires who used the terms jihad and crusade to ignite in the ordinary individual the desire to go to war against another nation and other human beings of differing religions and cultures.

Lets give an example. Had World War I really been a Christian crusade as was thought by some of the British soldiers, the British planers and thinkers would have aided the Assyrians Christians in the Hakkari region, of what is now south east Turkey, and other regions, and not allowed them to be slaughtered and crucified by the Ottomans and Kurds just for being Assyrians of a different and more ancient culture, language, and because they were ancient Christians.

Although the Assyrians were called Britain’s smallest ally the British only used them and made false promises for a homeland for the Assyrians. They abandoned them and were not faithful to their promises. Today history is repeating itself because the Assyrian Christians are asking from the world community the establishment of their own federal region in their ancestral homeland, but the world powers are giving their lands to the Kurdish occupiers who are originally not from this land, rather from nomadic areas such as Afghanistan and Mahabad Iran. The Kurds have lived in the area less than 200 years and they are definitely not indigenous to this land.

Jihad and crusade during WWI had little to do with true religion, which is spirituality. Mahatma Gandhi who was a product of British colonization said something interesting. He said, “I like your Christ, I do not like your Christians. Your Christians are so unlike your Christ.” These words give witness to British mannerism and their colonial wars. It was not about religion or spirituality and faith, rather it was about the interests of the few at the expense of the ordinary poor individuals, human beings, and nations. Wars and conflicts are always between various sides that know each other well, and know what they want from their campaign or operation. The regular people who die, they don’t know why they are truly there and why they are dying.

Now almost a hundred years after World War I the Assyrian Christians are still suffering and being driven out of their ancestral homeland.  ISIS is a powerful gang who have taken advantage and created a strategy to gain control of an unstable Middle East. The Assyrian activists worldwide should realize that we have to be strong and diligent in speaking out about the events occuring in the homeland.  History repeats itself.  No one will give us our rights unless we ask for it and stand up for it.  It is very sad that basic human rights are not being afforded to the Assyrians Christians of the region. We need to have leaders that will work in the right direction and who wont be afraid to speak the truth and be faithful to the Sacred Assyrian Cause.

*All information from World War I in the Middle East class 2014

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My visit to the Mesopotamian Section at the Royal Ontario Museum

By: Ashur Sada

 

Recently, the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) hosted an exhibition of hundreds of exceptional artifacts of Sumer, Assyria and

The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) hosted an exhibition of hundreds of exceptional artifacts of Sumer, Assyria and Babylon

The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) hosted an exhibition of hundreds of exceptional artifacts of Sumer, Assyria and Babylon

Babylon from the British Museum. For a limited time, people in Toronto and near-by cities had a historical opportunity to witness the innovations of ancient Mesopotamia. Innovations that truly changed and made our world what it is today.

As an Assyrian living in Toronto, and having never been to any of the world famous museums that host a lot of our ancient Assyrian treasures, I thought this was like winning the lottery. I mean, I already live in Toronto, I am Assyrian and are interested in my history: it would be crazy to miss it. Not to mention, the exhibition ran for months and there was no excuses to miss it. I actually made my visit a bit late, just a few days before this temporary section at the ROM was to close and its artifacts returned to the British museum again. Cameras weren’t allowed inside which was unfortunate but understandable.  Most of the items at the museums can be found online, though it is nothing like seeing it in person.

 

The Visit

We made our way to the ROM on a Sunday, right after Christmas. Though it had been running for a few months, there was still a significant number of people there to visit the Mesopotamian section. The section was divided into three parts, by chronological order:  Sumerian, Assyrian and Babylonia. Interestingly, the Assyrian section, from my observation,  was the largest of all. The exhibition overall had some very interesting and priceless pieces,  including the Epic of Gilgamesh, a portrait of king Ashur Banipal hunting lions, replicas of the Code of Hammurabi, relief panels from king Ashur Banipal’s library, statue of King Ashurnasirpal II and so much more.  The museum did a good job of explaining things through text and audiovisuals. Another interesting feature the museum had in place was the ‘stitching’ of related bas-relief sculptures into one video to make it easier for people to understand what is exactly happening. One such illustration was king Ashur Banipal hunting lions. Originally, this is depicted in three different bas-relief sculptress. Using video illustration, the museum shows and makes it easier for people to understand what is happening.

 

Assyrian Pride and implications

I am please to report that a lot of Assyrians I know here in Toronto did go and visit the museum to witness the new Mesopotamian section.  It would be foolish to be proud of such a great civilization but not take the effort to witness it in person. . For the duration of this exhibit, close to a million people would have seen the Mesopotamian section or at least been exposed to it indirectly (ad, radio, web etc) . Imagine a lot of these people later searching for Assyrian related material online. And imagine their shock when they visit websites like Assyrian Voice and others and realize that Assyrians are actually still alive.  It is nice to remind these people that Assyrians exist beyond this museum and history books.  Some 2500+ years may have been passed since the fall of the Assyrian empire but as people, culture and language, we are still here.

The feeling of pride is priceless. The world is paying homage to our civilization. A civilization that has helped define and shape our world as we know it today.  But as always, as great as the past is, the present and future is what matters now.

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The case for Assyrian survival and continuity post 612 B.C

By: Ashur Sada

In 1991,  the world witnessed the sudden and shocking collapse of one of the 20th centuries greatest powers, the Soviet Union.

After the fall of the Assyrian empire in 612 B.C, the Assyrian people and ethnicity continued on and till this day.

Though the collapse dissolved the Soviet Union into several smaller independent states and with it the Soviet identity, it didn’t mean the loss of the Russian identity. It simply meant that those Soviet citizens would now identify themselves as Russians, Georgians, Ukrainians etc. But essentially, their identity remained and didn’t cease to exist with the collapse of their former Soviet empire. In 1000 years from now, we will be looking at books from the late 20th century and early 21st century and see that people in the former Soviet Union were no longer referring to themselves as being ‘Soviets.’  Would we conclude from this that those ‘Soviets’ has disappeared from the face of the earth? Not really, they still existed and their main heir, the Russians, simply came to be called by this name now.  The name may have evolved but the lineage is direct and traceable.

This is essentially the case with the Assyrian identity and its survival following the collapse of the empire in 612 BC.  The question of the Assyrian continuity in the aftermath of the fall of the empire has been proven beyond any doubt but there still remain some skeptics-many with agendas-who argue that the Assyrians of today are probably not the same Assyrians from the ancient empire. They claim that following the collapse of the empire, Assyrians as people and identity were lost forever. As silly as these claims sound, they have been answered by so many Assyriologists, archaeologists, historians and recently even by DNA tracing.

The circumstances and timeline of the collapse of the two empires-Assyrian and Soviet-may favor the latter in that their people’s survival was much easier given that they didn’t have to be annihilated by other empires and that they have only been out of the scene for 25 years and not 2500 years like the Assyrians. Sure, that is true. But at the end of the day, the Soviet example is a great one when analyzing the ‘Assyrian survival and continuity’

There are even more recent examples. Following the collapse of the Ottoman empire, the identity of the Ottoman people didn’t cease to exist. It was simply morphed or evolved to a full Turkish one. Today, no one calls themselves ‘Ottoman’ but that is obviously not an indication that today’s Turks are not the direct descendants of the Ottomans. In the case of the Assyrian empire and the aftermath of its collapse, the case for the survival of the Assyrian people and identity is very strong. Despite some 2500 years since the collapse and despite all the different stages, empires and religions they have had to live with and under, the Assyrian identity remained intact and often strong. Sure, the people and identity were threatened at various stages, including by the Median-Babylonian invasion, being subjects under  powerful Persian and Roman empires,  conversion to Christianity, the Muslim invasions, bloody attacks by the moguls, Ottoman genocides and more, yet the Assyrian people managed to keep their name and blood alive!

Speaking of Christianity, it is interesting and ironic to see that Assyrians’ early adoption of the religion was one of the biggest threats to their identity. Assyrians of the antiquity were often viewed in the bible as being ruthless and destroyers of Jewish people, God’s chosen people. This prompted the newly converted Assyrians to distance themselves from their old name and ancestors at times-Assyrianism-and start a new chapter, where they would simply be identified by their new religion or their general geographical area-Mespotamia, Assyria etc.  Not to mention, the complication that arose from the introduction of the word ‘Syrian‘ and ‘Syriac’ made the term ‘Assyrian’ more lost in ambiguity.

Back in my teen years in the mid 90s, while living in Greece for a few years, I had a habit of writing daily journal entries. The topic would vary depending on my mood for that day. These entries were in English, despite it not being my first or second language at the time. Looking back at these entries recently, I noticed this one entry I had made about myself. Sort of a one page bio intro to myself. It caught me by surprise that there was not a single mention of the word ‘Assyrian’ neither as my language nor my ethnicity. I only mentioned myself being from Iraq and of a Christian religion. Does this mean I wasn’t Assyrian at this particular stage of my life? Of course not. Was it simply ignorance on my part or just part of my upbringing and the influence of school and the Saddam’s Ba’ath regime in brainwashing the masses? It could be. The point is, your ethnicity could be set in stone but it may not reflect in the way you live and write. Throughout the ages, starting from the time of Christ and up until the 1900s, Assyrians either didn’t see the need to constantly refer to themselves as being Assyrian, or they did but it was basically lost in translation. During my research into Assyrian continuity after the fall of the empire, I found no less than 20 different terms by which other nations referred to the old and new Assyrians. And that is just in my limited research and only in the English language. Imagine all the other ways they were referred to in all the other languages (Arabic, Greek, Latin etc.)

Assyrian continuity after the fall of the empire is analogous to a road that starts small and narrow, passes through dirt and challenging steep elevations but at the end, it is clear and gets you to your destination.

Think of the Assyrian identity and continuity post the fall of the empire in 612 B.C as a road (see the road image on the side for illustration).  It starts as a small one, signifying the start of the empire, around 2400 B.C. Then the road gets wider-the empire at its peak strength and reach-and by 612 B.C, that road becomes very narrow and filled with potholes, dirt and is almost unrecognizable. Yet it is still a road and continues forward. This road goes through mountains, hills, even a cave. At times, it becomes a narrow bridge over very deep and fast moving water but at no point does it end, it just continues.  In fact, there are stretches on this road that are so badly damaged and can’t be recognized, if you only managed to remove some of the dirt, you will realize that this road actually is continuing and it is the same road that you took when you started your journey.  In other words, if you took this road from the start and despite all the difficulties you will encounter along the way, if you manage to continue on this road, you are guaranteed to get to your current destination. That is the Assyrian continuity for you in a nutshell: it is  like road that changes so much in terrain but it is essentially the same one that you took and at no point does it cut off.

Assyrian continuity is a great example of the human will and its strong desire to remain relevant and alive in the face of all obstacles. We may take a nation’s survival for thousands of years for granted but it is not as easy as it looks, especially for the Assyrian people and ethnicity.  The fact that Assyrians have been stateless complicates things even more. Assyrian resiliency, being this strong, can only be traced to their strong and powerful ancestors, the Assyrians of Nineveh and Ashur, from 2400 to 612 B.C.

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The Hanging Gardens of Nineveh? Sure and now with historical evidence!

By: Ashur Sada

It is one of the seven wonders of the ancient world yet no one in this generation has ever seen what they look like nor where it was situated exactly. You just

The Hanging Gardens of Assyria?

The Hanging Gardens of Assyria?

had to take historians’ word for it, that it was a marvelous piece of engineering from the ancient world. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon has been the subject of an intense debate amongst the archaeological community.  Finding its exact location is the holy grail of this field and till this day no one has been able to find its remains and exact location.  Some even went as far as doubting its existence and thinking it was only a stuff of legend.

New research and evidence

Then came a British academic and archaeologist by the name of Stephanie Dalley from Oxford University. She has gathered a wealth of evidence suggesting the garden was created at Nineveh, 300 miles north of Babylon (current day Iraq.) Nineveh was the capital of the ancient powerful Assyrian empire. Babylon, at various times in the life of the Assyrian empire, was a satellite state for the Assyrians.  Based on all of this, the Assyrians and Babylonians-even till this day-are considered virtually one and the same, both speaking Aramaic and both rising to inherit the earlier Summerian and Akkadian civilizations in what is currently referred to as ‘Mesopotamia’ or the land between two rivers.

Given these facts about the Assyrians and Babylonians and their close social and geographical proximity to one another, it may have been a historical fallacy or inaccuracy by someone to attribute the gardens to Babylon rather than to its rightful builders and hosts, the Assyrians. And that is exactly what Stepahnie Dalley has argued for, amongst her many other arguments to support her claim.

Her 18 years of research culminated this month in the release of her new book “The Mystery of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon” Most of her evidence comes from re-translating previous cuneiform scripts which were poorly deciphered.  Add to that recent discoveries of an aqueduct (water supply structures) near the site of ancient capita of Nineveh and you have more evidence to support this claim.

 

Global and Assyrian Implications

Assuming this research and claims are accurate, and I personally find it all very compelling, what does this mean going forward? both from a global prospective and an Assyrian one? globally, this is a paradigm-shift indeed. It is akin to someone claiming that Hitler lived another 10 years beyond his stated death date. It will literally require the reprinting or correction of thousands of books and other literature in which this is currently stated as a fact. Wish there was a magic way to use the electronic version of ‘Find and Replace’ and apply it to physical books and texts!

Likewise, the implications for Assyrians will be huge although not surprising to some. The fact that this was already attributed to their Babylonian cousins to the south was like being their own.  As a matter of fact, there was already talk that the hanging gardens may have been pioneered for or by an Assyrian queen in Babylon.  But now that there is evidence to suggest they were indeed in Nineveh, the historical, spiritual and cultural capital of the Assyrians, a new sense of pride and glory is born. It is a new site to add to a long list of significant ancient Assyrian landmarks, including the library of AshurPanipal, the Palace of Sanharib, the Winged Bulls and more…

One question remains: What sounds better: “Hanging Gardens of Nineveh” or “Hanging Gardens of Assyria”? The first may sound more accurate and specific but I would choose the second for two reasons.  First, more people are more familiar with the word ‘Assyrian’ than the word ‘Nineveh’, so the transition from the old and wrong ‘Hanging Gardens of Babylon’ to the new ‘Hanging Gardens of Assyria’ will be easier and more familiar to most.  Secondly, it promotes the ‘Assyrian’ name and makes it more widely used.

 

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The Spirit of Music and the Revolutionary Influence of Slave Melody and the Fiddle on America

 

 

 

black fidler

By Abbey Mikha

Assyrians care about peoples from other cultures and they sympathize with their struggle!

I wrote this essay a few years ago for Slavery class.  I encourage all of you to read it.  Although it is not about Assyrians we can still learn from what other peoples of other nations have gone through and the struggle they faced at the hands of oppressors.

Introduction

Since the beginning of civilization many prejudiced catastrophic series of events have occurred which the human race should be ashamed of.   Such an event took place during the transatlantic slave trade.  This was certainly a miserable time in history, a strange time, when the human race had not yet understood itself in relation to people who appear different.  In that time Europeans devastated Africa.  They used African people as slaves and for many years they were their main labor force, which made a lot of Europeans materially rich, but in a historical sense evoked an image of them as morally devoid.  Slaves were important to the economic development of various countries and were shipped to the New World, to what is still today called the Americas.  The African slaves though did not forget about their home and always desired Africa.  Although they were not allowed to conjure an image of their homeland, they did so spiritually in the depths of their psyche and soul and through their music.  This psychological phenomenon became a gift to the New World from the slaves.  Although this world was unkind to them they still contributed to the culture. They told folkloric tales, danced, sang and kept alive the melody of their homeland.  It is undeniable that their beliefs were also repressed and substituted for Christianity, which was forced upon them.  Nonetheless, the melody and beat of Africa, which ran through their veins, would find its way into the notes and hymns of the slaves and the innovative rhythm of their descendants.  At first the music continued to be a reflection of the immeasurable sadness and hopelessness of an oppressed people. After, the interaction of African and European musical cultures as a result of the transatlantic slave trade created an undeniable musical revolution, which began with instruments such as the fiddle and the melody, which forever continues to have a major effect on the development of music in America.

Richard Jobson an English captain who visited Gambia during the years of 1620 to 1621 observed the importance of music in the African way of life: “There is without doubt, no people on the earth more naturally affected to the sound of musicke than these people; which the principal person [that is, the kings and chiefs] do hold as an ornament of their state, so as when we come to see them, their musicke will seldom be wanting.”[1] Zora Neale Hurston stated that in the time of slavery blacks “became lords of sounds.”[2] The melody of Africa was in the hearts of every black man and woman.  Although the sad melody of slaves became a mirror of sound of the torture they endured and a certain deep depressive expression of their calamity, one cannot deny the influence it was to have on America forever after.  Shane and Graham White said that, “For nearly three centuries of African American history, much of what was distinctive about black culture was to be found in the realm of sound.[3] Many people today attest to the fact that a large number of African Americans are musically gifted; this is evidenced by the eloquent gift of the spirituals that African slaves gave to people of all color.

For the slaves, as each day drew to a close and fading light made more work impossible, these physically tortured human beings were marched back to cabins for a few hours of rest:

“At night they would begin to sing their native songs, and in a short while would become so wrought up that, utterly oblivious to the danger involved, they would grasp their bundles of personal effects, swing them on their shoulders, and setting their faces towards Africa would march down into the water singing as they marched until recalled to their senses only by the drowning of some of the party”.[4]

In regards to such escapes and in some extreme cases nervous whites wished to silence slaves, at times quite literally.[5] Sometimes slaves were not allowed to even sing during their work so they “quietly hummed against the threat of punishment by the overseer or owner.”[6] This punishment of silence was perhaps why their heart was stubborn and still wanted to sing.  Words, rhymes, notes, and melodies after all are what make any life more bearable.  Although as time passed whites recognized their liking for many of the sounds of slavery. [7] “As would later happen with the paintings of Picasso and Braque, antebellum whites continued to use words such as “wild” or “strange” to describe the sounds that they had heard from colored people, but they also acknowledged the power of what had been revealed to them.”[8]

There were all kinds of songs that the slaves sang.  Some were work songs, dance and play songs, story songs or ballets, satirical songs, field and street cries, spirituals, and poetic forms.  The most common poetic structure was the call and response form, in which the solo verse alternate with the refrain lines. [9] The following is an interesting song with a typical arrangement.  In the song the “springs that never run dry” could be an expression commonly used by slaves to refer to that place where they could indulge in something so natural as a spring, where fresh water flows to the surface of the earth from underground, or even perhaps heaven a place where they would be free from the difficult physical labor which they had to endure on earth at that time:

I meet little Rosa early in the morning.

O Jerusalem! Early in the morning.

And I asked her, how [do] you do, my daughter,

O Jerusalem! Early in the morning.

I meet my mother early in the morning.

O Jerusalem! Early in the morning.

I want to go where Moses trod.

O the dying Lamb.

For Moses gone to the promised land.

O the dying Lamb.

To drink from springs that never run dry.

O the dying Lamb.

Some primary sources such as town and court records and assembly journals of the time reveal matters of musical interest among the lists of facts.  Thus we learn, for example, that the slave Nero Benson was a trumpeter in the company of Captain Isaac Clark.[10] The trial records of one slave revolt in 1741 show that one of the slaves involved was a fiddler named Jamaica, a slave of Ellis.[11] “Fiddling was an occupation that was commonly, if not exclusively, performed by African Americans and the tradition of black fiddling has its roots in slave culture.”[12] The record of slave fiddling was so strong, in fact, that some whites became convinced of the primacy of blacks as dance musicians in antebellum America.[13] Slave musicians had created a custom whereby they provided dance music for white America, and it was some time before blacks were seriously challenged in that field.[14] Therefore, a distinct African American musical tradition, one that combined elements of African and European music, had become well established.  This means there was cultural exchange and African slaves were influencing European music and revolutionizing the culture.  Had the Europeans known that this revolution in melody would occur and influence American culture to such an extent, they may not have allowed it.  It can be said that this gradual musical cultural exchange snuck through with mother time.  There were many songs, but there is a tune fiddlers played called “Lost John” which is said to have originated in black tradition.[15] The fiddlers were the hearts and souls of the party; for slaves it was a way to show their musical expertise and their free spirit.

There are eight important points in regards to slavery and fiddling, which Paul Wells stated in his article “Fiddling as an Avenue of Black-White Musical Interchange.”   These are very worth mentioning and are central to understanding the significance of the slave fiddler:

1.Slaves were playing fiddles for white dances as early as the 1690’s and presumably learned-and possibly adapted-the prevailing popular dance repertoire.

2. Black fiddlers also played tunes that were more African in character-“Negro jigs”-which do not conform to the standard British, Irish, American fiddle-tune mod but which may have influenced later southern fiddling, both white and black.

3. The combination of fiddle and banjo grew out of slave culture, and slaves were playing fiddles and banjos together at least as early as 1774.

4. Syncopated bowing patterns, which were likely borrowed from black fiddling, strongly influenced the development of a particularly southern version of fiddling and later forms of popular music.

5. White minstrels adapted black instruments, techniques, and repertoire and combined them with European musical elements to form a popular synthesis of African and European music.

6. Minstrelsy impacted later white fold tradition.

7. In late-nineteenth-century black urban communities, piano-based music supplanted the older fiddle and banjo dance music, leading to the development of ragtime.

8. The blues exerted a strong influence on white southern fiddling and, ultimately, on commercial genres that grew out of it.[16]

The African fiddler became an expert in his field and through his passion allowed white Americans to see the diligence and effort that the African slave was capable of.  Fiddling eventually became the most reported musical activity of African Americans during Antebellum America.

There have also been many forgotten songs influenced by slave culture but one song that everyone knows is “Amazing Grace” by John Newton.[17] “Although the origin of the melody is unknown, most hymnals attribute it to an early American folk melody. The Bill Moyers special on this song speculated that it may have originated as the tune of a song the slaves sang.”[18] Many people, to this day, do not appreciate the influence of slave cultures on America, and do not like to admit that it contributed anything profound, especially in the field of music.  The argument that slave music sounded very simple and primitive and could therefore not have influenced eloquent American music is not true.  Anyone with blood running through their veins knows that the saddest melodies are those that most touch the soul and influence musical minds that perhaps purposely overheard a song and were then inspired to write something similar combining style and music.  According to Samuel Floyd Jr. a journalist once said that Black music died at the hands of British rock groups in the 1960’s.[19] He says that, “part of the reason that such mythological thought continue to surface in scholarly writings is that too few black intellectuals have been involved in black music research for significant and persistent debunking to take place.”[20] Although he wrote this in 1983 it is still very true today.   It is sad that throughout history and even in this advanced century some scholars still deny the influence of slave music on America.  This gives witness to the fact that sometimes people who we believe to be thinkers, philosophers, and leaders in a certain field should be questioned, especially when the truth is so evident.

It is interesting to note that someone who is considered a great thinker like Friedrich Hegel also rationalized slavery.   He said that Africans lack consciousness, which sets man apart from other “animals”.  He thought that since Africans did not have that consciousness they deserved to be enslaved.[21] These are devastating thoughts and ideas, but even the Pope himself at some points in history sanctioned slavery.  Nonetheless, neither Hegel nor the Pope had enough authority to take away from slaves the power of music. Quite a few ex-slaves stated that their masters and mistresses and sometimes their white guests as well would come down to the slave quarters to witness and be entertained by a slave dance.[22] In the narratives, one finds references to blacks listening to white music and whites listening to black music.[23]

The truth is that racism has been there since anyone can remember,[24] but there have also always been a few kind people who knew that slavery was wrong on every level and tried to destroy it as an institution.  Sometimes the behavior of criminal peoples can be difficult to understand especially when we do not agree with them on any level. The transatlantic slave trade was a devastating event which, to say the least, shook and traumatized millions of Africans perhaps forever.  The creation of the universe may still be a mystery, but the creation of slavery was no accident.  One positive thing that came out of the transatlantic slave trade was the interaction of African and European musical cultures, which eventually created an undeniable musical revolution.  It was initiated by instruments such as the fiddle and the melody that forever continues to have a major effect on the development of music in America.

Imagine the fiddler, a man who happens to be black and also a slave, who in his moment of happiness shows excitement and creativity in play and in movement.  He created in the heart of the humanitarian onlooker a desire for a human uprising, an explosion of feeling, with his deliberate exchange and intermixing of techniques, notes, dancing, and feeling.  This musical expression, which stems from the source of the need to be free and to be allowed to exist is an image and sentiment that alone can influence generations of people in the beat of every second in time.

End Notes

[1] Eileen Southern. The Music of Black Americans A History. New York.  W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1971.  4.

[2] Shane White and Graham White. The Sound of Slavery. Boston: Beacon Press, 2005. Ix.

[3] White, The Sounds of Slavery. Ix.

[4] White. The Sound of Slavery. xi.

[5] White. The Sound of Slavery. xiii.

[6] White. The Sound of Slavery. 55.

[7] White. The Sounds of Slavery. 18.

[8] White. The Sounds of Slavery. 18.

[9] Southern. The Music of Black America. 190.

[10] Eileen Southern.  The Music of Black America. 30.

[11] Eileen Southern. The Music of Black America. 30.

[12] Paul Wells. “Fiddling as an Avenue of Black-White Musical Interchange.” Black Music Research Journal. Vol 23. 138.

[13] Wells. “Fiddling Avenue Interchange.”138.

[14] Wells. “Fiddling Avenue Interchange.”138.

[15] Wells. “Fiddling Avenue Interchange.”142.

[16] Wells. “Fiddling Avenue Interchange.” 145.

[17] Professor Mohamed H. Mohamed. Class notes.

[18] Al Rogers. Amazing Grace: The Story of John Newton. http://www.anointedlinks.com/amazing_grace.html (accessed December 1st).

[19] Samuel Floyd Jr. “On Black Music Research”. Black Music Research Journal. Vol. 3. 1983. 48.

[20] Floyd. “Black Music Research”. 48.

[21] Professor Mohamed H. Mohamed. Class notes.

[22] Robert Winans. “Black Instrumental Music Traditions in the Ex-Slave Narratives”. Black Music Research Journal. 1990.  53.

[23] Winans. “Black Music Ex-Slave Narratives.” 53.

[24] Professor Mohamed H. Mohamed. Class notes.

Works Cited

Floyd, Samuel Jr. “On Black Music Research”. Black Music Research Journal.  Vol. 3, (1983), pp. 46-57.  Published by: Center for Black Music Research – Columbia College Chicago and University of Illinois Press. (accessed December 2nd 2010). Jstor.

Southern Eileen.  The Music of Black Americans A History. New York.  W.W. Norton & Company, Inc, 1971.

Wells Paul.  “Fiddling as an Avenue of Black-White Musical Interchange.” Black Music Research Journal. Vol. 23, No. 1/2 (Spring – Autumn, 2003), pp. 135-147.  Published by: Center for Black Music Research – Columbia College Chicago and University of Illinois Press.  (Accessed December 1st 2010). Jstor.

White Shane and White Graham.  The Sound of Slavery. Boston: Beacon Press, 2005.

 

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Abbey’s Defense of the Maharashtra Region in India and all Poor Farmers of the World

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Best Use for Degraded Lands in Western India Project

Think of the following essay in relation to our homeland.  We have water shortage in Iraq as well and in all our villages, like for example in Bartella.  Our Assyrian people need help as the people of India also need help.  We are an ancient people just like the Indus Valley people.  What is happening in India is happening all over the world.  Take fifteen minutes of your time to read through this report.  Our friendship as Assyrians with peoples of the entire earth is a testament to our humanitarian spirit as a nation.  Let me know what you think.

By Abbey Mikha

Summary

Changing the ideas of modernized people of the earth in relation to poor peoples of other nations has to be part of an education process for modernized people in regards to human and humanitarian issues. Abolition of rural poverty should be an extremely important concern for all persons and nations. We need to help peoples of the Third World! In our project area in the Maharashtra region in India there live a simple ancient people who have not been influenced a great deal by the progress other regions of the world have seen. Though they may be poor they certainly have people of intelligence and wisdom. Our team wants to help improve the situation of the people who are trying to survive on a seasonal basis. We have to aid in the development of farmers who can serve as future leaders in the field of agriculture. Also, we realize that water is the source of life. We want to provide help and opportunities for creative people and even inventors to influence the future of their land and villages by implementing ancient wisdom combined with modern knowledge on water harvesting techniques to cure the ecological degradation in the area. We have researched the opinions of various individuals and experts on the three approaches to land use under consideration. In our research it was our hope to find the best solution for the peoples of the Maharashtra region of India. Although it would be amazing if we could make each person in our project area rich, a more realistic solution is to provide practical advice and support in order to influence their life, so that their living conditions can improve and they will have hope and joy not just for a moment but for a lifetime.

Structuring the Problem definition

Trying to help people of other cultures is every good human beings hope regardless of which culture they are from, but there are problems to achieving those goals and dreams, most of which are financial. In the following research project and report the opinions of various individuals and experts on the three approaches to land use under consideration will be evaluated. The opinions of individuals who are actually from India like Dr. Narayana Shenoy, Greeta Nair, K.G. Kshirsagar, and Madhav Gadgil have been considered. Additionally, the views of Kevin Conway and Thomas Rosin have been presented. We also referred to Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd report called, “Modern Irrigation and Fertigation Methodologies for Higher Yields in Sugarcane.” We are of the opinion that considering a variety of views will lead us to more accurate conclusions.

It is rather confusing to think that poor peoples of the world could not want help from those who are modernized, but the fact is that people are afraid of change. The peoples who wholeheartedly want to help are often times received in a suspicious manner by the villagers in the Maharashtra region. Accepting help from those who are strangers to the ancient land of the Indus Valley is a choice and cannot be provided by force.

The ancient water harvesting techniques that the people have used for generations must be developed and combined with modern techniques to improve the livelihood of the people. To take for granted this ancient wisdom of water harvesting would be a testament to our ignorance. Therefore, we will do our utmost to appreciate this knowledge, which springs from a distant time and even an eternal source.

Background Information

In his report titled, “Conjunctive use of water resources in the Decan Trap, India” Dr. Frank Simpson gives a detailed explanation of the area of Akole Taluka which is very similar to our project area located on the eastern flanks of the Western Ghats mountain range. He says:

“Akole Taluka is located on the eastern margin of the Western Ghats mountain range in the westernmost part of Ahmednagar District, Maharashtra State, India. This area is comprised of uplands to the west and south, which give way to rolling and relatively even topography, at lower elevations to the east. The taluka is part of the Deccan Trap plateau, where generally flat lying basalt lavas make up the bedrock beneath a variable cover of weathered basalt and soil. In these respects, it is similar to much of the Deccan region, which covers an area of 500, 000 km2 in western and central India. Superficial deposits are thin to absent at higher elevations and up to 2 m or more in thickness in the valleys. The annual rainfall, which ranges from 600 to 2,000 mm across the taluka, is largely confined to the monsoon period, from June to September. July is the wettest month. Typically, there are sporadic showers during the post-monsoon period (October–January) and little or no rain in the pre- monsoon months (February–May). Before the onset of the monsoon, temperatures in the 40–50°C range are common.”

The tribal and rural people are subsistence farmers. Their main crops are rice, groundnuts, ragi and local grass during the autumn growing season, and wheat and gram during the spring season (Simpson). The quality of the harvest depends on the amount of soil moisture and there is also fluctuating water availability that decreases gradually after the monsoon period, which affects the soil and agriculture (Simpson). Water is the source of life, and attaining it is part of the difficulty for this region.

Measures of Effectiveness

We will consider that we have succeeded in our project not necessarily when we have changed the whole region. Rather, through simple signs like when the local people trust us and have learned to more effectively subsist from their land, as a result of a combination of their ancient knowledge and our suggestions and expertise. When we have shared our information of modern strategies and combined it with the people’s ancient approaches and they start to believe that we want to help them, we will have accomplished something amazing. Our goal is to help the people of Maharashtra region and those near Akole Taluka in moving forward as a group, society, and even as individuals.

We are certain that humanitarian work will and would be embraced by many individuals of the world if the funds were available. This though should not be an excuse for non-action; we must at least attempt to help poor peoples of every nation. Nonetheless, funds are one aspect of our project that we had to keep in consideration and under control. Our team of agrologists and volunteers have decided to live amongst the people of the Maharashtra region and in this way avoid unnecessary expenses. This also will help us in understanding the daily difficulties of the people. The funds we have been granted have been expended carefully with the hope of making the best of every dollar.

Alternative Solutions

Water Harvesting Solution:

Water harvesting is an ancient water collection method, which has been improved and improvised throughout the ages from the time of the earliest civilizations including that of the Indus Valley. A most pleasant verse indicating a part of the water cycle is found in the ‘Kiskindha Kanda’ of Valmiki’s Ramayana. It states: “The sun’s rays have drunk the water of the seas, and carrying it as an embryo for nine months, is giving out the elixir of life” (Shenoy). The ancient peoples of the Indus Valley realized the necessity of water and its obvious connection with all the living beings on earth.

In the article titled, “Traditional water harvesting methods of India”
 by Narayana Shenoy he states:

 

“Ancient Indian Sanskrit literature reveals the extensive knowledge our ancient predecessors possessed, of very complex and dynamic phenomena of movement of water in nature i.e. knowledge of rainfall, run-off, weather pattern, properties of water, properties of soil, etc. They designed and constructed dams, aqueducts and a variety of water harvesting structures much earlier than the commonly believed Greek, Roman or other ancient civilizations.”

This is a testament to that although the majority of the peoples of this region are poor; they are the descendants of a rich culture and civilization from a mysterious forgotten time in history. They were able to make it to this century from so many thousands of years ago! This is an achievement considering the difficult environment they live in. It is the opinion of our team that the ancient water harvesting techniques should be continued and developed and combined with modern techniques that suit the area. There are solutions, which will cause the least harm for the land and also the people.  On the subject of rainwater harvesting Dr. Narayana Shenoy states:

“It can be simple to construct from inexpensive local materials, and are potentially successful in most habitable locations…Roof rainwater can’t be of good quality and may require treatment before consumption. As rainwater rushes from the roof it may carry pollutants in it such as the tiniest bit of mercury from coal burning buildings to bird feces. Although some rooftop materials may produce rainwater that is harmful to human health, it can be useful in flushing toilets, washing clothes, watering the garden… these uses alone halve the amount of water used by a typical home…Overflow from rainwater harvesting tank systems can be used to refill aquifers in a process called groundwater recharge, though this is a related process, it must not be confused with Rainwater harvesting. Rainwater harvested from roofs can contain human, animal and bird feces, mosses and lichens, windblown dust, particulates from urban pollution, pesticides, and inorganic ions from the sea (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4), and dissolved gases (CO2, NOx, SOx)) ( Shenoy ).”

This is exactly where modern science and technology and technique can help. After collecting the water as described in the passage, it must be treated. Clean water can be made available for the population of the region. In this world of coincidence there are so many ways to lose ones life, but not having drinkable water is not an acceptable reason to die for anyone in the world, for any child of any nation. We are responsible for this as human beings and as friends to our fellow human kind.

Another opinion is that of Kevin Conway who asserts that, “Over the past 70 years, human numbers have tripled but our thirst for water has surged six-fold” (p.1). He continues:

“Supply is only one part of the growing water crisis. For an increasing number of people, water quality is every bit as threatening. Population growth, industrialization, and urbanization are not only depleting lakes, rivers, and aquifers, they are polluting them as well. Already more than 1 billion people lack access to safe drinking water; 3 billion lack access to basic sewerage systems. For millions, life-sustaining water is now a deadly menace. Water- and sanitation-related diseases will rob many more of their health and a productive future. The history of rain harvesting is rich in technique and innovation. The Greeks, the Mayans, and island peoples around the world all developed ways of harvesting or holding back rain as it cascaded from their roofs or flowed across their fields. IDRC-supported researchers tapped into this broad base of traditional knowledge and used the tools of modern science to improve water-harvesting techniques and safeguard water quality (Conway p.1).”

We agree with this strategy. The water harvesting solution is beneficial for the villagers near the area of Maharashtra. There are no negative consequences for the people using the various ancient techniques of water harvesting. This knowledge may come in handy at times of great need. We can help improve upon this way when combining it with some modern strategies to insure the best results.

The Sugarcane Solution:

According to the Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd report called, “Modern Irrigation and Fertigation Metholodgies for Higher Yields in Sugarcane” India is the world’s largest producer of sugar and sugarcane (p. 5). It also states that sugarcanes requirement for water and fertilizer are also equally high (p. 5). Sugarcane is grown with flood irrigation in all other states except in Maharashtra, which is the location of our project area (p. 5). According to this article the constraints for sugar cane production are:

1. Non availability of high yielding varieties
2. Dearth of good quality seed
3. Improper water management
4. Use of imbalanced fertilize doses
5. Negligence in plant protection
6. Low awareness among the farmers to use improved cultivation practices.

In this article it also states that sugarcane grows extremely well in medium to heavy, well-drained soils, and high organic matter content. Water logged soils and soils of poor drainage are not suitable. Growth of sugarcane will be poor in sandy soils (p. 6). Also, heat, humidity, and sunlight intensity play important role in sugarcane germination, tillering, vegetative growth and maturity. Sugarcane grows well in humid and hot weather (p. 6). In the JISL report it also states that the mean minimum temperature and the relative temperature disparity are comparatively lower in Maharashtra (p. 7). It seems that for all those reasons some are of the opinion that Maharashtra is a good region for growing sugar cane. This must be analyzed further with the reality and truth at heart. The motive of those trying to promote this alternative must be considered. Are these individuals trying to take what they believe to be the easy way out? This idea of making fast money while not considering the future of the land will cost the poor people in the end, not those making big money.

In an article titled, “More Maharashtra farmers shifting to sugarcane cultivation” the author Greeta Nair said the following:
Favorable conditions not necessarily climatic but more political, financial and overall support, are making farmers shift. Increasingly land in Maharashtra is being diverted to sugarcane. This shift is significant in Solapur, Beed and Latur. Traditionally cane has been grown in western Maharashtra and accounts for more than 60% of the state’s contribution to the sugar bowl. But now, cane is also been grown in areas that have historically known to be chronic drought prone areas and they are contributing 25% to the sugar production (Nair p.1).

In this region of India politics hardly considers the destiny of the common folk. Politicians should not make decisions about degraded lands and best alternatives. Politicians study politics and should contribute to their field. Geologists study the earth and these scientists and engineers should be the decision makers in regards to earth issues. This would positively influence our destiny as a human race upon this planet we call home.

All things considered, the district of Maharashtra is actually facing the problems of water scarcity and sustainability due to sugarcane cultivation. Therefore sugar cane cultivation is not the solution. A society cannot make all of its decisions based on a one-year economic plan. The income made within one year of sugar cane production will only be beneficial for those with the money in their pocket.

In the Agricultural Economics Research Review of 2006 called the, “Organic Sugarcane Farming for Development of Sustainable Agriculture in Maharashtra” by K.G. Kshirsagar the issue of how much sugar cane costs to grow is discussed. Also, how much fertilizers cost chemical and non-chemical, costs of irrigation, and plant protection chemicals. In this article he states:

In Maharashtra, about 80 per cent of water is utilized for agriculture (World Bank, 2003), and more than 60 percent of it is utilized for the sugarcane crop alone. Moreover, farmers mine water from deeper aquifers for the sugarcane crop, especially in the study district. This is a cause of great concern and demands conservation and judicious use of water, as it has endangered the stability and sustainability of agriculture. The organic sugarcane farming (OSF) has been found quite successful in the study area and has offered several benefits as compared to those by inorganic sugarcane farming (ISF). Although OSF requires more human labor, cost of cultivation has been found lower due to savings on chemical fertilizers, irrigation, seeds and agrochemicals. The yields have been observed to be relatively lower on OSF but are more than compensated by the price premium fetched by the organic sugarcane and the yield and profit stability observed on OSF. The OSF has been found to conserve the soil and water resources, increases farmers’ income, thereby enhancing their economic well-being and livelihood security. Thus, OSF is important in achieving the goal of sustainable agriculture. It has been suggested that organic farming should receive prime attention from all the stakeholders to realize its full potential in increasing profitability and providing the much sought after sustainability of agriculture.

This is an exaggeration of the reality of sugar cane production in Maharashtra and the future of its lands, soils, and economy. Although it is always good to consider various opinions in the end the truth must be the guide, for the harnessing of truth of those of the poor of Maharashtra region will be a beacon of light that will enable them to subsist well into the future. Their truth may need to be considered on a global level. It may well be a simple truth, that they need honest advice and help. The future of the lands in the region must be well thought out and although the people are being pressured to grow sugar cane by the government this solution is not the best alternative.

Do Nothing Approach

In his article called, “Conjunctive use of water resources in Deccan Trap” Dr. Frank Simpson stated, “Indigenous knowledge, attention to local religious practices, and respect for traditional and folk approaches to communication were indispensable to the success of the project.” This is a very important factor of our project also. Allowing the people of the Maharashtra region to continue on with their traditions and the way they have subsisted since ancient times without any help may be a choice, albeit an unfair one. It allows them to live life as their ancestors have done. So many times throughout history modern peoples have intruded on the lives of ancient peoples and have caused a lot of unpleasantness in the life of the people as a community. Although our project is an honorable one and we want to help the people of Maharashtra, they may not want the help we so want to give. Though they live in poverty they may have found some greater meaning to life.

A simple question may be, “Does what we want to provide for the people of this region fit with their life style as physical and spiritual beings?” The answer to this question may be contradictory depending on whom we ask. Some of the people might be very attached to their practices and consider them holy. Nonetheless, our goal is to try to increase their self-esteem so that they can change their future, but we must remember that this may not be ours to control. The natural way of living may be satisfactory and the most environmental friendly system for human beings to subsist at peace with the earth. Perhaps someday there may not be any better permanent solution and therefore we must think about the meaning behind this approach.

It is true that we should try to influence other cultures in order to help them move forward. Aiding people of the area in the Maharashtra region will benefit them physically, propel them forward as a community, and give them a better life. Nothing is certain in this world but the philosophy of brotherhood and sisterhood is everlasting.

In Madhav Gadgil’s article titled, “Biodiversity and India’s Degraded Lands” she discusses a very interesting topic. She says that, “ecosystem people” subsist by producing or gathering a diversity of biological resources from their immediate vicinity. The people of the Maharashtra region are such “ecosystem people”. She says:

“Their quality of life is intimately lined to the maintenance of modest levels of biodiversity in their own circumscribed resource catchments. Their resources base has been extensively degraded by pressures created by “biosphere people”…the Third World elite and citizens of industrial countries, who can draw resources from all over the world and are thus, indifferent to environmental degradation in the Third World. “Ecosystem people” have a genuine stake in biodiversity maintenance in their immediate surrounding, it is important that conservation efforts include maintenance and restoration of at least modest levels of biodiversity throughout the Third World (p. 167).”

So the question must be considered, “Do we want to help the poor of the region in order to give them bits of our life style, or rather so that we can continue our own life style in the future?”

Our projects incentive is moral so we can help poor farmers and villagers and give them our knowledge. After we do so though we must be careful not to consider ourselves their managers. We must not allow ourselves to believe that after we have given the people in Maharashtra newfound information that we must now stay in the country and become the overseers of events. It has been said many times that the world has become a global village and this is true, but we have overstepped many boundaries as a western civilization. We must deal with the people in a very considerate and sensitive manner. Their culture is fragile. We should help them and protect them but we should not govern them. We should never destroy that which makes them unique. Above all we should ask what they want.

Analysis of Alternative Solutions

The positive and negative consequences of each possible solution to the alternative solutions will now be considered. In Mintesinot Behailu and Mitiku Haile’s report about water harvesting they state:

“The aim of water harvesting is to mitigate the effects of temporal shortages of rain, so-called dry spells, to cover both household needs and productive use. This involves storage component and various forms of storage exist such as: micro-dams, farm ponds, subsurface dams, tanks… Water scarcity is a critical issue for many developing countries in general and for those in the arid to semi-arid areas of the world in particular. It has long been understood that intensive water resource development can have a decisive role in the economic and social development of a country and in alleviating drought. Alleviating food security related to drought and famine through sustainable agriculture and environmental rehabilitation…attempts are being made to harvest runoff water in micro-dams for use both in households and small-scale irrigation schemes. It is recognized that the construction of micro-dams with proper irrigation and agronomic services will result in micro-climatic and environmental changes with positive impact on sustained productivity. Notwithstanding the positive impacts on increased agricultural productivity and improved community welfare, the negative impacts of water resource development require constant assessment and monitoring on environmental changes (Behailu and Haile).”

Therefore, there are innumerable positive aspects to water harvesting. There are no negative consequences for the people relying on their ancient techniques and further developing them through our modern knowledge of water retrieval. This solution can only bring constructive results for the land and the people. Although the water collected may not be directly drinkable instantly, it is usable in many other ways, and there are many procedures to clean the water so that every person in Maharashtra will have enough to survive and hopefully prosper.

The positive aspects of sugar cane productions are that it provides a multitude of jobs and thus influences the economy positively. Negative aspect of sugar cane production other than the negative influence on soils, is that sugar cane is a water intensive crop, and enormous amount of water is required for its cultivation. This water is lacking in the area. The water to cultivate the sugar cane will be taken from the mouths of the people.

Although local politicians, representing both the State and Federal Governments, have proposed that there is money to be made from growing sugar cane on a large scale in our project area, we must consider the needs and the thoughts of the villagers. We are of the same opinion as the villagers. We believe that the proponents of the widespread production of sugar cane and scarce soil nutrients would be depleted on a large scale, with every harvest. Therefore, although the politicians think this strategy would be a big money maker it is not the best long-term solution for the land or the people.

The do nothing approach which would allow the villagers to live their life as they have done in the years before, since many thousand years ago in ancient times, also has positive and negative impacts. The positive aspect of this strategy is that the people would live as their ancestors have lived without disruption of their life style. The negative aspect is that the people may not be able to survive as they have because of changes upon the earth. Also, it must be said that our future as a human race is codependent. Yes, we may also need to learn from the people of the Maharashtra region, perhaps to balance our own life style of greed, waste, and excess. Therefore, we must lift the people of Maharashtra unto a higher standard of living and perhaps in the future lower our standard of living, in order to meet somewhere in the middle in a forthcoming time where we all must coexist together. Balance and equality of living standards will be essential so that we all survive into the next thousand years upon the earth.

Evaluation

Although it might be difficult to explain to all the people of Maharashtra what the solutions are for the project area, our team of volunteers and experts are eager and ready to meet with all the various village councils who oppose the growing of sugar cane as a major crop, and anyone else who may wish to attend our meeting. We believe that the village council is correct in that they believe that the problem of land degradation would get much worse in the longer term as a result of the mass production of sugar cane for profits. We also agree with the village council that the only way to reverse the processes of desertification, which are well under way in the region, is to prevent the monsoon rains from flowing out of the area as surface runoff. This is best done through the widespread introduction of the technologies for water harvesting and water spreading. These involve very simple modifications of the hill slopes, which are cheap, small-scale and easily replicated. The new technologies would raise the amount of soil moisture and permit the production of a higher-yield second crop. When this knowledge is combined with that of ancient harvesting methods the people will feel comfortable because they will sense a familiarity with the practices.

In Thomas Rosin’s article, “The Tradition of Groundwater Irrigation in Northwestern India” he expresses that research indicates that there existed a different groundwater irrigation system of dams and perennial canals redesigned for India by the British during the early nineteenth century and have been continued by modern Indian government. There were though also indigenous principles and practices that the people in the region followed before. He writes about a folk system of hydrologic practices in India and gives importance to the surface impoundments of rain (p. 51). He further expresses that there is a interlinking among surface water facilities and their significance to the all over hydrology. This article argues that the opinion has been voiced that the indigenous system is actually superior to that of the British (Rosin p. 51).

It is very true that some modern civilizations have lost admiration for the ancient world and the knowledge that its peoples hold within their memory. Ancient knowledge is precious and we were all once connected to peoples who were originally ancient. One day we will know perhaps how those ancient people built the great civilizations of the world including that of the mesmerizing Indus Valley, and how they survived for so many thousands of years. Until we better understand these civilizations we should never undermine the knowledge of its people.

In conclusion we cannot accept the sugar cane solution, which would cause further problems down the road for the land and the people. Therefore, we must work with the locals of the Maharashtra region to bring about changes in the area through the ancient water harvesting techniques combined with our modern knowledge. The do nothing approach in our opinion is also not acceptable. We must do something! We must be able to earn the trust of fellow human beings in that we will help them and contribute our knowledge in order to make their lives better. The Indus Valley people are a link to the past and our sincere friendship with them and all peoples of the world is our link to the future.

We should respect all the farmers of the world and not just in Maharashtra.  We must always also remember just like human beings need rest the earth also needs its rest and can only produce so much.  Do not abuse the earth that freely gives of herself and be true to our planet.  God only knows how much time there is left on earth.  This was an Assyrians point of view in regards to Geology and what is going on in India and the world.  The big question is though do you agree and what do you think and believe?

References

Brooks David, Shames Tilly, Wolfe Sarah (2001). Local Water Supply and Management: A Compendium of 30 Years of IDRC-Funded Research International Development Research Centre. Retrieved from: http://web.idrc.ca/uploads/user- S/111711308618Brooks.pdf

Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd. Irrigation & Fertigation Methologies for Higher Yields in Sugarcane. Retrieved from: http://www.jains.com/PDF/crop/sugarcane%20cultivation.pdf

K.G. Kshirsagar, Agricultural, (2006). Organic Sugarcane Farming for Development of Sustainable Agriculture in Maharashtra. Economics Research Review Vol. 19 pp 145-153. Retrieved from: http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/57785/2/DrKG-Kshirsagar.pdf

Madhav Gadgil, Biodiversity and India’s Degraded Lands. Published by: Springer on behalf of Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Page 167 of 167-172. Obtained from Jstor: Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4314063.

Mintesinot Behailu and Mitiku Haile, (2006 June). Highlighting the impacts of North– South research collaboration among Canadian and southern higher education partners. Association of Universities and Colleges in Canada.
http://www.aucc.ca/_pdf/english/publications/colloquium_proceedings_e.pdf

Nair Geeta, (2011 Jan 14). More Maharashtra Farmers Shifting to Sugarcane Cultivation. Financial Express. Retrieved from:
http://www.financialexpress.com/news/more-maharashtra-farmers-shifting-to- sugarcane-cultivation/737292/1

Rosin Thomas (1993). Human Ecology: The Tradition of Groundwater Irrigation in Northwestern India. Obtained from Jstor.
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4603074

Shenoy Narayana, (2009 August 16). Traditional Water Harvesting Methods of India. Retrieved from: http://www.organiser.org/dynamic/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage& pid=304&page=22

Simpson Frank, and Sohani Girish, (2003). India BP-II.13: Conjunctive Use of Water Resources in Deccan Trap. In: MOST/Nuffic (IK-Unit) Database, Register of Best Practices on Indigenous Knowledge, Chapter 4 of Best Practices on Indigenous Knowledge, Joint Publication of the Management of Social Transformations Programme (MOST) and the Centre for International Research and Advisory Networks (CIRAN), MOST Database of Best Practices. Web-link Reference: http://www.unesco.org/most/bpik13-2.htm

 

 


 

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A Flower From the Fields of Zerineh

 

By Abbey Mikha

Shlama al Omti!

I hope you are all having a great summer and doing things you love!  Yesterday I was just sitting there alone at home and I remembered my mom’s town in Jilu Hakkari called Zerineh.  I had some time and made a YouTube video with the song Zerineh by Janan Sawa and included some of my pictures.  I always loved Janan’s songs and especially his songs to do with Atra, Kha’b Nissan, and Zerineh.  I’m not sure how old the song Zerineh is, but I can remember it since I was very young.  It is a beautiful song with a sad tune, a tune that resembles the sadness that our ancestors felt when they had to flee Zerineh during the Seypa Genocide that devastated our nation.

One day I will see the ground where you stood Zerineh and one day I’ll go back to my homeland to sit in your fields, to see your mountains, and to wonder why time has created this distance between us.  Even though I am far from the lands of my ancestors I’ll always be a flower from the fields of Zerineh.

I am an Assyrian born in Lebanon. My mother’s family be Yousip  left their homeland in Zerineh Hakkari and escaped to Kiev during the Seypa Genocide of 1915.  My mom is in the blue in the picture in this post.  There is a story passed down in my family that my great grandfather Adam Yousip  from Zerineh walked from the Hakkari region with his family to Kiev.  My grandfather Kostan was born in Kiev. He moved to Lebanon with his family when he was very young.  I grew up listening to Assyrian music in the town of Ksara in Lebanon at the yearly Sherat Mar Zaia celebration and I have always loved Assyrian music even though my family left Lebanon to Germany and then to Canada at a very young age.  I love the country of my birth Lebanon, but my heart pulses the song of Assyria and the song of Zerineh.

The Assyrians in Ksara call the town in Lebanon Zerineh because so many people in town come from Zerineh Jilu Hakkari originally.  They are survivors of the Seypa Genocide.   The houses in the town of Ksara were given to these Assyrians who still live there amongst each other.  There is a beautiful church in the town called Mar Zaia to remind us of our beautiful church in Hakkari.  I hope to visit Hakkari one day and see what is left of the towns and villages of the Assyrians in Turkey.  This land belongs to us but who will listen?  I hope that life will give you an opportunity to go back and visit our homeland as well.

I have written an article about the Hakkari Assyrians called, “The Metis of Red River and the Assyrians of Assyria.”  It is from a few years back but I have updated it and it is still valid today.  Here is the link: <http://assyrianvoice.net/emagazine/?p=369>

The Song “Zerineh” is one of my favorites ever since I was young because I always knew that my mom’s ancestors were from Zerineh and because I myself like the lady in the song have green eyes.  I wonder if many women from Zerineh have green eyes!? I also have heritage from Alqosh and Mardin in Tur Abdin, but I always felt close to the town of Zerineh because I grew up with the kids of the town in Ksara until I was five years old many of which were Zerne.  I am proud of my entire heritage.  It is my honor to be from Zerineh, Alqosh, and Mardin!  I never forgot the people in the town of Ksara no matter which countries I traveled to just like I never forget the people of Zerineh, Alqosh, and Mardin and all Assyrian towns and villages.   They all always stayed in my heart.  I think of them everyday and even in dreams.  I hope to visit my relatives in Ksara Lebanon soon and one day I hope to see where Zerineh once stood.

My friend Ashour and I were discussing this issue of returning to the homeland and he said, “We should ALWAYS think of our beautiful homeland and the glorious day that we return, like a lost child returning to his mother.”

I responded to him: “Children sometimes grow up and search a lifetime for their mother even if she gave them up at birth or at a young age!  Many of them forgive their mothers for letting them go because they realize that her situation was very difficult at that time.  In a way our homeland gave us up since 1915, but this does not have to be forever.  Those of us who are attached to the beat of our land and ancestry are connected to an invisible umbilical chord. It is like something that pulls us to the direction of the East. Like an image of beautiful goddesses of our homeland calling our names to return and signaling with their hands and telling us that we are all flowers who are supposed to be blooming there in those fields by those mountains.”  I will always love my moms town of Zerineh.

For those of you asking for more pictures from my life in Lebanon here is a picture of my mom and I taken in Zahle during Easter celebration.

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My new YouTube creation:

 
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